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      A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Effects of Angelica Gigas Nakai Extract on Blood Triglycerides

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          Abstract

          Angelica gigas Nakai, Korean dang-gui, has long been widely used in traditional treatment methods. There have been a number of studies of the health effects of A. gigas and related compounds, but studies addressing effects on blood triglycerides (TG) are lacking. To investigate the effects of A. gigas Nakai extract (AGNE) on TG in Korean subjects, we carried out a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects who met the inclusion criterion (130 mg/dL ≤ fasting blood TG ≤ 200 mg/dL) were recruited for this study. One hundred subjects were assigned to the AGNE group ( n = 50) or the placebo group ( n = 50), who were given 1 g/day of AGNE (as a gigas Nakai extract 200 mg/d) in capsules and the control group for 12 weeks. Outcomes were efficacy TG, lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and safety parameters were assessed initially for a baseline measurement and after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of supplementation, TG and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentration and TG/HDL-C ratio in the AGNE group were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group ( p < 05). No significant changes in any safety parameter were observed. These results suggest that the ingestion of AGNE may improve TG and be useful to manage or prevent hypertriglyceridemia.

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          A meta-analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B as markers of cardiovascular risk.

          Whether apolipoprotein B (apoB) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) adds to the predictive power of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for cardiovascular risk remains controversial. This meta-analysis is based on all the published epidemiological studies that contained estimates of the relative risks of non-HDL-C and apoB of fatal or nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events. Twelve independent reports, including 233 455 subjects and 22 950 events, were analyzed. All published risk estimates were converted to standardized relative risk ratios (RRRs) and analyzed by quantitative meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Whether analyzed individually or in head-to-head comparisons, apoB was the most potent marker of cardiovascular risk (RRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.51), LDL-C was the least (RRR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.33), and non-HDL-C was intermediate (RRR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.44). The overall comparisons of the within-study differences showed that apoB RRR was 5.7%>non-HDL-C (P LDL-C (P LDL-C (P=0.017). Only HDL-C accounted for any substantial portion of the variance of the results among the studies. We calculated the number of clinical events prevented by a high-risk treatment regimen of all those >70th percentile of the US adult population using each of the 3 markers. Over a 10-year period, a non-HDL-C strategy would prevent 300 000 more events than an LDL-C strategy, whereas an apoB strategy would prevent 500 000 more events than a non-HDL-C strategy. These results further validate the value of apoB in clinical care.
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            The hypoglycemic effects of hesperidin and naringin are partly mediated by hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

            Dietary antioxidant compounds such as bioflavonoids may offer some protection against the early stage of diabetes mellitus and the development of complications. We investigated the effect of citrus bioflavonoids on blood glucose level, hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes activities, hepatic glycogen concentration, and plasma insulin levels, and assessed the relations between plasma leptin and body weight, blood glucose, and plasma insulin. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice (db/db mice, 5 wk old), an animal model for type 2 diabetes, were fed a nonpurified diet for 2 wk and then were fed an AIN-76 control diet or the control diet supplemented with hesperidin (0.2 g/kg diet) or naringin (0.2 g/kg diet). Hesperidin and naringin supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose compared with the control group. Hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen concentration were both significantly elevated in the hesperidin- and the naringin-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Naringin also markedly lowered the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase compared with the control group. Plasma insulin, C-peptide, and leptin levels in the db/db mice from the 2 bioflavonoid-supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, plasma leptin was positively correlated with plasma insulin level (r = 0.578, P < 0.01) and body weight (r = 0.541, P < 0.05), and was inversely correlated with the blood glucose level (r = -0.46, P < 0.05). The current results suggest that hesperidin and naringin both play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by increasing hepatic glycolysis and glycogen concentration and/or by lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis.
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              Triglyceride concentration and ischemic heart disease: an eight-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study.

              The role of triglycerides as a risk factor of ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains controversial. For the present study, we examined the relation between fasting triglycerides and risk of IHD in the Copenhagen Male Study. Baseline measurements of fasting lipids and other IHD risk factors were obtained for 2906 white men (age range, 53 to 74 years) who were initially free of overt cardiovascular disease. During an 8-year follow-up period, 229 men had a first IHD event. Crude cumulative incidence rates of IHD were 4.6% for the lowest, 7.7% for the middle, and 11.5% for the highest third of triglyceride levels (P for trend <.001). Compared with the lowest third level and adjusted for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, social class, and LDL and HDL cholesterol, relative risks of IHD (95% confidence interval) were 1.5 (1.0 to 2.3; P=.05) and 2.2 (1.4 to 3.4; P<.001) for the middle and highest third of triglyceride levels, respectively. When triglyceride levels were stratified by HDL cholesterol levels (triglyceride third multiplied by HDL cholesterol third), a clear gradient of risk of IHD was found with increasing triglyceride levels within each level of HDL cholesterol, including high HDL cholesterol level, which are thought to provide protection against IHD. In middle-aged and elderly white men, a high level of fasting triglycerides is a strong risk factor of IHD independent of other major risk factors, including HDL cholesterol.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                31 January 2020
                February 2020
                : 12
                : 2
                : 377
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54907, Korea; sjjeong@ 123456jbctc.org (S.-J.J.); wrkim@ 123456jbctc.org (W.-R.K.); mroh@ 123456jbctc.org (M.-R.O.)
                [2 ]Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54907, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea; cha8@ 123456jbnu.ac.kr
                [4 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chonbuk National University Medical School Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea; bhpark@ 123456jbnu.ac.kr
                [5 ]Department of Pharmacology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: soowan@ 123456jbnu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-63-259-3040; Fax: +82-63-259-3060
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.

                Article
                nutrients-12-00377
                10.3390/nu12020377
                7071255
                32023922
                498197b4-e0c9-4c3e-9217-2453c2a8ed00
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 21 December 2019
                : 28 January 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                angelica gigas nakai,triglycerides,vldl-c,tg/hdl-c,atherogenic index
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                angelica gigas nakai, triglycerides, vldl-c, tg/hdl-c, atherogenic index

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