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      Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Mediates Intestinal Immunopathogenesis in Campylobacter Jejuni-Infected Infant Mice


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          Increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinase-A and -B, respectively) can be detected in the inflamed gut. We have recently shown that synthetic gelatinase blockage reduces colonic apoptosis and pro-inflammatory immune responses following murine Campylobacter ( C.) jejuni infection. In order to dissect whether MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 is involved in mediating C. jejuni-induced immune responses, infant MMP-2 –/–, MMP-9 –/–, and wildtype (WT) mice were perorally infected with the C. jejuni strain B2 immediately after weaning. Whereas, at day 2 postinfection (p.i.), fecal C. jejuni B2 loads were comparable in mice of either genotype, mice expelled the pathogen from the intestinal tract until day 4 p.i. Six days p.i., colonic MMP-2 but not MMP-9 mRNA was upregulated in WT mice. Remarkably, infected MMP-2 –/– mice exhibited less frequent abundance of blood in feces, less distinct colonic histopathology and apoptosis, lower numbers of effector as well as innate and adaptive immune cells within the colonic mucosa, and higher colonic IL-22 mRNA levels as compared to infected WT mice. In conclusion, these results point towards an important role of MMP-2 in mediating C. jejuni-induced intestinal immunopathogenesis.

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          Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

          Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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            Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications.

            Tumor progression is a complex, multistage process by which a normal cell undergoes genetic changes that result in phenotypic alterations and the acquisition of the ability to spread and colonize distant sites in the body. Although many factors regulate malignant tumor growth and spread, interactions between a tumor and its surrounding microenvironment result in the production of important protein products that are crucial to each step of tumor progression. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of degradative enzymes with clear links to malignancy. These enzymes are associated with tumor cell invasion of the basement membrane and stroma, blood vessel penetration, and metastasis. They have more recently been implicated in primary and metastatic tumor growth and angiogenesis, and they may even have a role in tumor promotion. This review outlines our current understanding of the MMP family, including the association of particular MMPs with malignant phenotypes and the role of MMPs in specific steps of the metastatic cascade. As scientific understanding of the MMPs has advanced, therapeutic strategies that capitalize on blocking the enzymes have rapidly developed. The preclinical and clinical evolution of the synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) is also examined, with the discussion encompassing important methodologic issues associated with determining clinical efficacy of MMPIs and other novel therapeutic agents.
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              Matrix Metalloproteinases: A Review

              Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of nine or more highly homologous Zn(++)-endopeptidases that collectively cleave most if not all of the constituents of the extracellular matrix. The present review discusses in detail the primary structures and the overlapping yet distinct substrate specificities of MMPs as well as the mode of activation of the unique MMP precursors. The regulation of MMP activity at the transcriptional level and at the extracellular level (precursor activation, inhibition of activated, mature enzymes) is also discussed. A final segment of the review details the current knowledge of the involvement of MMP in specific developmental or pathological conditions, including human periodontal diseases.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                18 September 2015
                September 2015
                : 5
                : 3
                : 188-198
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                [2 ] Department of Medicine I for Gastroenterology, Infectious Disease and Rheumatology/Research Center ImmunoSciences (RCIS), Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Charité – University Medicine Berlin, CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, FEM, Garystr. 5, D-14195 Berlin, Germany; +49-30-450524318; markus.heimesaat@ 123456charite.de

                Competing interests: The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 22 July 2015
                : 27 July 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 11
                Original Article

                campylobacter jejuni,infant mice,matrix metalloproteinase-2,gelatinases,pro-inflammatory immune responses,intestinal microbiota,il-22,il23,il-18,apoptosis


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