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      Re-Evaluating the Internal Phylogenetic Relationships of Collembola by Means of Mitogenome Data

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          Abstract

          Collembola are an ancient and early diverging lineage of basal hexapods that occur in virtually all terrestrial habitats on Earth. Phylogenetic relationships between the different orders of Collembola are fiercely debated. Despite a range of studies and the application of both morphological and genetic approaches (singly or in combination) to assess the evolutionary relationships of major lineages in the group, no consensus has been reached. Several mitogenome sequences have been published for key taxa of the class (and their number is increasing rapidly). Here, we describe two new Antarctic Collembola mitogenomes and compare all complete or semi-complete springtail mitogenome sequences available on GenBank in terms of both gene order and DNA sequence analyses in a genome evolution and molecular phylogenetic framework. With minor exceptions, we confirm the monophyly of Poduromorpha and Symphypleona sensu stricto (the latter placed at the most basal position in the springtail phylogenetic tree), whereas monophyly of Neelipleona and Entomobryomorpha is only supported when a handful of critical taxa in these two lineages are excluded. Finally, we review gene order models observed in the class, as well as the overall mitochondrial nucleotide composition.

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          Most cited references 46

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

            Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                30 December 2020
                January 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy; claudio.cucini@ 123456student.unisi.it (C.C.); paolo.fanciulli@ 123456unisi.it (P.P.F.); francesco.frati@ 123456unisi.it (F.F.); francesco.nardi@ 123456unisi.it (F.N.)
                [2 ]British Antarctic Survey, NERC, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK; pcon@ 123456bas.ac.uk
                Author notes
                Article
                genes-12-00044
                10.3390/genes12010044
                7824276
                33396901
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                springtail, evolution, mitochondrial dna, phylogeny

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