Pardis Kaynezhad a , * , Subhabrata Mitra b , Gemma Bale a , Cornelius Bauer a , Ingran Lingam b , Christopher Meehan b , Adnan Avdic-Belltheus b , Kathryn A. Martinello b , Alan Bainbridge c , Nicola J. Robertson b , Ilias Tachtsidis a
14 November 2019
We describe the development of a miniaturized broadband near-infrared spectroscopy system (bNIRS), which measures changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin ( ) and deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) plus tissue metabolism via changes in the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase ([oxCCO]). The system is based on a small light source and a customized mini-spectrometer. We assessed the instrument in a preclinical study in 27 newborn piglets undergoing transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We aimed to quantify the recovery of the HI insult and estimate the severity of the injury. The recovery in brain oxygenation ( ), blood volume ( ), and metabolism ( ) for up to 30 min after the end of HI were quantified in percentages using the recovery fraction (RF) algorithm, which quantifies the recovery of a signal with respect to baseline. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on bNIRS-RF measurements compared to proton ( ) magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS)-derived thalamic lactate/N-acetylaspartate (Lac/NAA) measured at 24-h post HI insult; Lac/NAA peak area ratio is an accurate surrogate marker of neurodevelopmental outcome in babies with neonatal HI encephalopathy. The -RF cut-off threshold of 79% within 30 min of HI predicted injury severity based on Lac/NAA with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (93%). A significant difference in thalamic Lac/NAA was noticed ( ) between the two groups based on this cut-off threshold of 79% -RF. The severe injury group ( ) had smaller recovery in -RF ( ) and no significant difference was observed in -RF between groups. At 48 h post HI, significantly higher -MRS-measured inorganic phosphate/exchangeable phosphate pool (epp) ( ) and reduced phosphocreatine/epp ( ) were observed in the severe injury group indicating persistent cerebral energy depletion. Based on these results, the bNIRS measurement of the oxCCO recovery fraction offers a noninvasive real-time biomarker of brain injury severity within 30 min following HI insult.