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      Feasibility of Kahoot! as a Real-Time Assessment Tool in (Histo-)pathology Classroom Teaching

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          New technologies like gamification are continuously integrated into medical education during the last years. However, the benefit and implementation of such gaming platforms are not clearly studied. This analysis assesses the feasibility of Kahoot! regarding simplicity and low-cost performance as a learning/teaching tool for medical education in (histo-)pathology.

          Materials and Methods

          In this feasibility pilot study, we developed 36 modules for different benign and malignant tumors, covering four major topics: gastrointestinal tract, dermatology, urogenital tract, and hematology. Each module included histomorphological text-based questions for education of 2nd-year medical students. The online gaming-platform Kahoot! was anonymously implemented before and after “classical” medical education which included discussions of histological slides for each tumor entity using Microsoft PowerPoint-based presentations in combination with microscopical demonstrations. Participating students were invited to a seven-questions evaluation about the online educational approach.

          Results

          Overall, 23 of 51 students of the study class completed the pre- and the post-evaluation of Kahoot! in one or more organ systems. The percentage of correct answers increased from the initial mean/median of 47.2/45% to 77.2/76.3%. Simultaneously, the time for answering questions decreased by roughly 50% (from mean/median time of 9.1/8.3 seconds to 5.1/4.3 seconds) from pre- to post-assessment. The results were independent of gender; however, there were scoring differences between the different organ systems. Students positively evaluated the routine implementation of the gaming-platform Kahoot! within medical education.

          Conclusion

          Kahoot! is as a simple, direct, and low-cost application in medical teaching improving learning outcomes of pathomorphological topics with high acceptance by students. Kahoot!-based evaluations should be also performed in more advanced topics in the field of histopathology.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Does gamification increase engagement with online programs? A systematic review

          Background Engagement in online programs is difficult to maintain. Gamification is the recent trend that offers to increase engagement through the inclusion of game-like features like points and badges, in non-game contexts. This review will answer the following question, ‘Are gamification strategies effective in increasing engagement in online programs?’ Method Eight databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO, Medline, INSPEC, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Business Source Complete and ACM Digital Library) were searched from 2010 to the 28th of October 2015 using a comprehensive search strategy. Eligibility criteria was based on the PICOS format, where “population” included adults, “intervention” involved an online program or smart phone application that included at least one gamification feature. “Comparator” was a control group, “outcomes” included engagement and “downstream” outcomes which occurred as a result of engagement; and “study design” included experimental studies from peer-reviewed sources. Effect sizes (Cohens d and 95% confidence intervals) were also calculated. Results 1017 studies were identified from database searches following the removal of duplicates, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 10,499 participants, and were commonly undertaken in tertiary education contexts. Engagement metrics included time spent (n = 5), volume of contributions (n = 11) and occasions visited to the software (n = 4); as well as downstream behaviours such as performance (n = 4) and healthy behaviours (n = 1). Effect sizes typically ranged from medium to large in direct engagement and downstream behaviours, with 12 out of 15 studies finding positive significant effects in favour of gamification. Conclusion Gamification is effective in increasing engagement in online programs. Key recommendations for future research into gamification are provided. In particular, rigorous study designs are required to fully examine gamification’s effects and determine how to best achieve sustained engagement.
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            Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

            During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students’ learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner’s knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills.
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              Game-Based E-Learning Is More Effective than a Conventional Instructional Method: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Third-Year Medical Students

              Background When compared with more traditional instructional methods, Game-based e-learning (GbEl) promises a higher motivation of learners by presenting contents in an interactive, rule-based and competitive way. Most recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis of studies on Game-based learning and GbEl in the medical professions have shown limited effects of these instructional methods. Objectives To compare the effectiveness on the learning outcome of a Game-based e-learning (GbEl) instruction with a conventional script-based instruction in the teaching of phase contrast microscopy urinalysis under routine training conditions of undergraduate medical students. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 145 medical students in their third year of training in the Department of Urology at the University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany. 82 subjects where allocated for training with an educational adventure-game (GbEl group) and 69 subjects for conventional training with a written script-based approach (script group). Learning outcome was measured with a 34 item single choice test. Students' attitudes were collected by a questionnaire regarding fun with the training, motivation to continue the training and self-assessment of acquired knowledge. Results The students in the GbEl group achieved significantly better results in the cognitive knowledge test than the students in the script group: the mean score was 28.6 for the GbEl group and 26.0 for the script group of a total of 34.0 points with a Cohen's d effect size of 0.71 (ITT analysis). Attitudes towards the recent learning experience were significantly more positive with GbEl. Students reported to have more fun while learning with the game when compared to the script-based approach. Conclusions Game-based e-learning is more effective than a script-based approach for the training of urinalysis in regard to cognitive learning outcome and has a high positive motivational impact on learning. Game-based e-learning can be used as an effective teaching method for self-instruction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Adv Med Educ Pract
                Adv Med Educ Pract
                amep
                amep
                Advances in Medical Education and Practice
                Dove
                1179-7258
                05 October 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 695-705
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Pathology, Paracelsus Medical University/Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK) , Salzburg, Austria
                [2 ]Cancer Cluster Salzburg, Institute of Pathology, Paracelsus Medical University/Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK) , Salzburg, Austria
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine I, Paracelsus Medical University/Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK) , Salzburg, Austria
                [4 ]Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Paracelsus Medical University , Salzburg, Austria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Daniel NeureiterInstitute of Pathology, Paracelsus Medical University/Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK) , Salzburg, AustriaTel +43 (0)5 7255 29027Fax +43 (0)5 7255 29099 Email d.neureiter@salk.at
                Article
                264821
                10.2147/AMEP.S264821
                7547141
                © 2020 Neureiter et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 33, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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