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Mg chelatase in chlorophyll synthesis and retrograde signaling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: CHLI2 cannot substitute for CHLI1

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      CHLI1 is indispensable for MgCh function in C. reinhardtii, while CHLI2 is not involved in MgCh activity. Inactivation of MgCh due to CHLI1 deficiency results in altered nuclear gene expression.

      Abstract

      The oligomeric Mg chelatase (MgCh), consisting of the subunits CHLH, CHLI, and CHLD, is located at the central site of chlorophyll synthesis, but is also thought to have an additional function in regulatory feedback control of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and in chloroplast retrograde signaling. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, two genes have been proposed to encode the CHLI subunit of MgCh. While the role of CHLI1 in A. thaliana MgCh has been substantially elucidated, different reports provide inconsistent results with regard to the function of CHLI2 in Mg chelation and retrograde signaling. In the present report, the possible functions of both isoforms were analyzed in C. reinhardtii. Knockout of the CHLI1 gene resulted in complete loss of MgCh activity, absence of chlorophyll, acute light sensitivity, and, as a consequence, down-regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. These observations indicate a phenotypical resemblance of chli1 to the chlh and chld C. reinhardtii mutants previously reported. The key role of CHLI1 for MgCh reaction in comparison with the second isoform was confirmed by the rescue of chli1 with genomic CHLI1. Because CHLI2 in C. reinhardtii shows lower expression than CHLI1, strains overexpressing CHLI2 were produced in the chli1 background. However, no complementation of the chli1 phenotype was observed. Silencing of CHLI2 in the wild-type background did not result in any changes in the accumulation of tetrapyrrole intermediates or of chlorophyll. The results suggest that, unlike in A. thaliana, changes in CHLI2 content observed in the present studies do not affect formation and activity of MgCh in C. reinhardtii.

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      Locating proteins in the cell using TargetP, SignalP and related tools.

      Determining the subcellular localization of a protein is an important first step toward understanding its function. Here, we describe the properties of three well-known N-terminal sequence motifs directing proteins to the secretory pathway, mitochondria and chloroplasts, and sketch a brief history of methods to predict subcellular localization based on these sorting signals and other sequence properties. We then outline how to use a number of internet-accessible tools to arrive at a reliable subcellular localization prediction for eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins. In particular, we provide detailed step-by-step instructions for the coupled use of the amino-acid sequence-based predictors TargetP, SignalP, ChloroP and TMHMM, which are all hosted at the Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark. In addition, we describe and provide web references to other useful subcellular localization predictors. Finally, we discuss predictive performance measures in general and the performance of TargetP and SignalP in particular.
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        Predotar: A tool for rapidly screening proteomes for N-terminal targeting sequences.

        Probably more than 25% of the proteins encoded by the nuclear genomes of multicellular eukaryotes are targeted to membrane-bound compartments by N-terminal targeting signals. The major signals are those for the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria, and in plants, plastids. The most abundant of these targeted proteins are well-known and well-studied, but a large proportion remain unknown, including most of those involved in regulation of organellar gene expression or regulation of biochemical pathways. The discovery and characterization of these proteins by biochemical means will be long and difficult. An alternative method is to identify candidate organellar proteins via their characteristic N-terminal targeting sequences. We have developed a neural network-based approach (Predotar--Prediction of Organelle Targeting sequences) for identifying genes encoding these proteins amongst eukaryotic genome sequences. The power of this approach for identifying and annotating novel gene families has been illustrated by the discovery of the pentatricopeptide repeat family.
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          Arabidopsis mutants define a central role for the xanthophyll cycle in the regulation of photosynthetic energy conversion.

          A conserved regulatory mechanism protects plants against the potentially damaging effects of excessive light. Nearly all photosynthetic eukaryotes are able to dissipate excess absorbed light energy in a process that involves xanthophyll pigments. To dissect the role of xanthophylls in photoprotective energy dissipation in vivo, we isolated Arabidopsis xanthophyll cycle mutants by screening for altered nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. The npq1 mutants are unable to convert violaxanthin to zeaxanthin in excessive light, whereas the npq2 mutants accumulate zeaxanthin constitutively. The npq2 mutants are new alleles of aba1, the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene. The high levels of zeaxanthin in npq2 affected the kinetics of induction and relaxation but not the extent of nonphotochemical quenching. Genetic mapping, DNA sequencing, and complementation of npq1 demonstrated that this mutation affects the structural gene encoding violaxanthin deepoxidase. The npq1 mutant exhibited greatly reduced nonphotochemical quenching, demonstrating that violaxanthin deepoxidation is required for the bulk of rapidly reversible nonphotochemical quenching in Arabidopsis. Altered regulation of photosynthetic energy conversion in npq1 was associated with increased sensitivity to photoinhibition. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of npq mutants of Chlamydomonas, suggest that the role of the xanthophyll cycle in nonphotochemical quenching has been conserved, although different photosynthetic eukaryotes rely on the xanthophyll cycle to different extents for the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Institute of Biology/Plant Physiology, Humboldt University , Philippstraße 13, D-10115 Berlin, Germany
            2Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California , Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA
            3Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
            Author notes
            * Present address: Committee on Cancer Biology, University of Chicago , Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
            Present address: School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, CA 94720USA.
            To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: bernhard.grimm@ 123456rz.hu-berlin.de

            Editor: Markus Teige, University of Vienna

            Journal
            J Exp Bot
            J. Exp. Bot
            jexbot
            exbotj
            Journal of Experimental Botany
            Oxford University Press (UK )
            0022-0957
            1460-2431
            June 2016
            25 January 2016
            25 January 2016
            : 67
            : 13 , Special Issue: Plant Organellar Signalling
            : 3925-3938
            26809558 4915523 10.1093/jxb/erw004
            © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Pages: 14
            Categories
            Research Paper

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