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      Parathyroidectomy Reduces Intradialytic Hypotension in Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

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          Abstract

          Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and cardiovascular function before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Methods: We compared predialytic and intradialytic blood pressure, left and right ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and RVEF), and cardiothoracic ratio 1 month before PTX, and 6 and 12 months after PTX. IDH was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure ≥ 10 mmHg. Results: At the time of PTX, the mean age of the patients was 57.4 ± 12.0 years, and the mean dialysis vintage was 12.2 ± 5.8 years. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months after PTX, the average numbers of sessions disturbed by IDH during 13 dialysis sessions (1 month) were 6.4, 3.9 ( p < 0.016 vs. baseline), and 4.0 sessions ( p < 0.037 vs. baseline, p = 0.801 vs. 6 months), respectively. LVEF and RVEF were improved significantly after PTX. Furthermore, volume status was also improved, as evidenced by the significantly greater ultrafiltration volume and reduced cardiothoracic ratio. Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism are more likely to achieve normotensive and euvolemic status after PTX, probably through improved heart function and reduced IDH episodes.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Arterial stiffness and pulse pressure in CKD and ESRD.

          We recognize that increased systolic pressure is the most challenging form of hypertension today and that pulse pressure as an independent cardiovascular risk factor has focused attention on arterial stiffness and wave reflections as the most important factors determining these pressures. In recent years, many studies emphasized the role of arterial rigidity in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it was shown that stiffening of arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Moreover,arterial stiffening is linked to decreased glomerular filtration rate, and is predictive of kidney disease progression and the patient’s cardiovascular outcome. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are observed with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in end-stage renal disease(ESRD). This accelerated aging is associated with outward remodeling of large vessels, characterized by increased arterial radius not totally compensated for by artery wall hypertrophy. Arterial stiffening in CKD and ESRD patients is of multifactorial origin with extensive arterial calcifications representing a major covariate. With aging, the rigidity is more pronounced in the aorta than in peripheral conduit arteries, leading to the disappearance or inversion of the arterial stiffness gradient and less protection of the microcirculation from high-pressure transmission. Various non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions can modestly slow the progression of arterial stiffness,but arterial stiffness is, in part, pressure dependent and treatments able to stop the process mainly include antihypertensive drugs.
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            Pathophysiology of dialysis hypotension: an update.

             J Daugirdas (2001)
            Dialysis hypotension occurs because a large volume of blood water and solutes are removed over a short period of time, overwhelming normal compensatory mechanisms, including plasma refilling and reduction of venous capacity, due to reduction of pressure transmission to veins. In some patients, seemingly paradoxical and inappropriate reduction of sympathetic tone may occur, causing reduction of arteriolar resistance, increased transmission of pressure to veins, and corresponding increase in venous capacity. Increased sequestration of blood in veins under conditions of hypovolemia reduces cardiac filling, cardiac output, and, ultimately, blood pressure. Adenosine release due to tissue ischemia may participate in reducing norepinephrine release locally, and activation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, perhaps in patients with certain but as yet undefined cardiac pathology, may be responsible for sudden dialysis hypotension. Patients with diastolic dysfunction may be more sensitive to the effects of reduced cardiac filling. The ultimate solution is reducing the ultrafiltration rate by use of longer dialysis sessions, more frequent dialysis, or reduction in salt intake. Increasing dialysis solution sodium chloride levels helps maintain blood volume and refilling but ultimately increases thirst and interdialytic weight gain, with a possible adverse effect on hypertension. Blood volume monitoring with ultrafiltration or dialysis solution sodium feedback loops are promising new strategies. Maintaining tissue oxygenation via an adequate blood hemoglobin level seems to be important. Use of adenosine antagonists remains experimental. Given the importance of sympathetic withdrawal, the use of pharmacologic sympathetic agonists is theoretically an attractive therapeutic strategy.
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              Increased pulse pressure and risk of heart failure in the elderly.

              Arterial stiffness increases with age. Thus, pulse pressure, an index of arterial stiffening, may predict congestive heart failure (CHF) in the elderly. To study prospectively the association between pulse pressure and risk of CHF. Prospective cohort study. The community-based East Boston Senior Health Project, East Boston, Mass. A total of 1621 men and women (mean [SD] age, 77.9 [5.0] years) free of CHF who had blood pressure measurements taken in 1988-1989 and were followed up for 3.8 years. Incidence of CHF as ascertained by hospital discharge diagnosis (n = 208) and death certificates (n = 13). After controlling for age, sex, mean arterial pressure, history of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, and antihypertensive medication use, pulse pressure was an independent predictor of CHF. For each 10-mm Hg elevation in pulse pressure, there was a 14% increase in risk of CHF (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.24; P = .003). Those in the highest tertile of pulse pressure (>67 mm Hg) had a 55% increased risk of CHF (P=.02) compared with those in the lowest (<54 mm Hg). Pulse pressure was more predictive than systolic blood pressure alone and was independent of diastolic blood pressure. Pulse pressure, an easily measurable correlate of pulsatile hemodynamic load, is an independent predictor of risk of CHF in this elderly cohort.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2013
                November 2013
                22 September 2013
                : 37
                : 4-5
                : 323-331
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital; bSchool of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei; cDepartment of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Yuanshan Branch, Yilan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                *Chih-Yu Yang, M.D., Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 11217 (Taiwan), Tel. +886-2-2871-2121 ext. 2987, Fax +886-2-2875-7841, E-Mail cyyang3@vghtpe gov.tw
                Article
                350160 Kidney Blood Press Res 2013;37:323-331
                10.1159/000350160
                24080642
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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