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      A six-gene panel to label follicular adenoma, low- and high-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma


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          The distinction between follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and follicular-patterned benign lesions is almost impossible on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Furthermore, minimally invasive FTCs (MI-FTCs) with less than 4 vascular invasion foci generally have an excellent prognosis, but there are exceptions and, so far, no molecular marker appears able to identify them reliably. We aimed to distinguish benign lesions from low- and high-risk FTCs by a small-scale combination of genes. The expression analysis of 75 selected genes was performed on 18 follicular adenomas (FAs), 14 MI-FTCs and 6 widely invasive FTC (WI-FTCs). The mutational status of the RAS genes, TERT promoter and PAX8-PPARG rearrangements was also investigated. Seven samples were mutated, namely 3 MI-FTCs and 4 WI-FTCs. Twenty-five genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05) between FAs and WI-FTCs. Six of these ( ECM1, RXRG, SDPR, SLC26A4, TIFF3, TIMP1) were also differently expressed among MI-FTCs and FAs or WI-FTCs and were considered to build a classification model, which was tested to classify samples according to their histological class. Hence, 31 out of 38 were correctly classified, and accuracy remained high after cross-validation (27/38). The 2 MI-FTCs incorrectly classified as WI-FTCs harbored both RAS and TERT promoter mutations. The capability of these six genes to stratify benign, low- and high-risk lesions appears to be promising in supporting the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules.

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          TIMPs: versatile extracellular regulators in cancer

          A compelling long-term goal of cancer biology is to understand the crucial players during tumorigenesis in order to develop new interventions. Here, we review how the four non-redundant tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate the pericellular proteolysis of a vast range of matrix and cell
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            Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers

            Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8–PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAF V600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non–BRAF–Non–RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF–like and RAS–like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8–PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.
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              Meta-analysis and meta-review of thyroid cancer gene expression profiling studies identifies important diagnostic biomarkers.

              An estimated 4% to 7% of the population will develop a clinically significant thyroid nodule during their lifetime. In many cases, preoperative diagnoses by needle biopsy are inconclusive. Thus, there is a clear need for improved diagnostic tests to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid tumors. The recent development of high-throughput molecular analytic techniques should allow the rapid evaluation of new diagnostic markers. However, researchers are faced with an overwhelming number of potential markers from numerous thyroid cancer expression profiling studies. To address this challenge, we have carried out a comprehensive meta-review of thyroid cancer biomarkers from 21 published studies. A gene ranking system that considers the number of comparisons in agreement, total number of samples, average fold-change and direction of change was devised. We have observed that genes are consistently reported by multiple studies at a highly significant rate (P < .05). Comparison with a meta-analysis of studies reprocessed from raw data showed strong concordance with our method. Our approach represents a useful method for identifying consistent gene expression markers when raw data are unavailable. A review of the top 12 candidates revealed well known thyroid cancer markers such as MET, TFF3, SERPINA1, TIMP1, FN1, and TPO as well as relatively novel or uncharacterized genes such as TGFA, QPCT, CRABP1, FCGBP, EPS8 and PROS1. These candidates should help to develop a panel of markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of thyroid tumors in a clinical setting.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                January 2018
                27 November 2017
                : 7
                : 1
                : 124-132
                [1 ]Department of Surgical Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
                [2 ]National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
                [3 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine Section of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to F Basolo: fulvio.basolo@ 123456med.unipi.it
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 6 November 2017
                : 27 November 2017

                gene expression,follicular thyroid carcinoma,ftc,minimally invasive,biomarker


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