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      The Unforeseen Non-Coding RNAs in Head and Neck Cancer

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          Abstract

          Previously ignored non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have become the subject of many studies. However, there is an imbalance in the amount of consideration that ncRNAs are receiving. Some transcripts such as microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have gained much attention, but it is necessary to investigate other “pieces of the RNA puzzle”. These can offer a more complete view over normal and pathological cell behavior. The other ncRNA species are less studied, either due to their recent discovery, such as stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA), YRNA, miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNA), telomerase RNA component (TERC), natural antisense transcript (NAT), transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCR), and pseudogene transcript, or because they are still largely seen as non-coding transcripts with no relevance to pathogenesis. Moreover, some are still considered housekeeping RNAs, for instance small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and TERC. Our review summarizes the biogenesis, mechanism of action and potential role of less known ncRNAs in head and neck cancer, with a particular focus on the installment and progress for this particular cancer type.

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          Most cited references 116

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          Central dogma of molecular biology.

           FRANCIS CRICK (1970)
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            Enhancer RNAs and regulated transcriptional programs.

            A large portion of the human genome is transcribed into RNAs without known protein-coding functions, far outnumbering coding transcription units. Extensive studies of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have clearly demonstrated that they can play critical roles in regulating gene expression, development, and diseases, acting both as transcriptional activators and repressors. More recently, enhancers have been found to be broadly transcribed, resulting in the production of enhancer-derived RNAs, or eRNAs. Here, we review emerging evidence suggesting that at least some eRNAs contribute to enhancer function. We discuss these findings with respect to potential mechanisms of action of eRNAs and other ncRNAs in regulated gene expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              Long noncoding RNAs with snoRNA ends.

              We describe the discovery of sno-lncRNAs, a class of nuclear-enriched intron-derived long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are processed on both ends by the snoRNA machinery. During exonucleolytic trimming, the sequences between the snoRNAs are not degraded, leading to the accumulation of lncRNAs flanked by snoRNA sequences but lacking 5' caps and 3' poly(A) tails. Such RNAs are widely expressed in cells and tissues and can be produced by either box C/D or box H/ACA snoRNAs. Importantly, the genomic region encoding one abundant class of sno-lncRNAs (15q11-q13) is specifically deleted in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). The PWS region sno-lncRNAs do not colocalize with nucleoli or Cajal bodies, but rather accumulate near their sites of synthesis. These sno-lncRNAs associate strongly with Fox family splicing regulators and alter patterns of splicing. These results thus implicate a previously unannotated class of lncRNAs in the molecular pathogenesis of PWS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                01 March 2018
                March 2018
                : 9
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Materials, Division Dental Propaedeutic, Aesthetic, “IuliuHatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, 23 Marinescu Street, 40015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; irimie.alexandra@ 123456umfcluj.ro (A.I.I.); ddudea@ 123456umfcluj.ro (D.D.)
                [2 ]MEDFUTURE—Research Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu-Hatieganu, 23 Marinescu Street, 40015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; andreea.zimta@ 123456umfcluj.ro (A-A.Z.); cristina.ciocan@ 123456umfcluj.ro (C.C.)
                [3 ]Department of Medical Biology, Medical University Plovdiv, BulVasilAprilov 15-А, Plovdiv 4002, Bulgaria; ni_ki82@ 123456abv.bg
                [4 ]Technological Center for Emergency Medicine, BulVasilAprilov 15-А, Plovdiv 4002, Bulgaria
                [5 ]Research Center for Functional Genomics and Translational Medicine, “IuliuHatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Marinescu Street, 40015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; braicucornelia@ 123456yahoo.com
                [6 ]Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Republicii 34 Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ioana.neagoe@ 123456umfcluj.ro ; Tel.: +40-264-598-885
                Article
                genes-09-00134
                10.3390/genes9030134
                5867855
                29494516
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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