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      Development of GBTS and KASP Panels for Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Fingerprinting of a Large Collection of Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in China

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          Abstract

          Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) is one of the most important and nutritious vegetables widely cultivated in China. In the recent four decades, several improved varieties were bred and developed by Chinese breeders. However, the efforts for improvement of broccoli are hindered by limited information of genetic diversity and genetic relatedness contained within the available germplasms. This study evaluated the genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, and fingerprinting of 372 accessions of broccoli representing most of the variability of broccoli in China. Millions of SNPs were identified by whole-genome sequencing of 23 representative broccoli genotypes. Through several stringent selection criteria, a total of 1,167 SNPs were selected to characterize genetic diversity and population structure. Of these markers, 1,067 SNPs were genotyped by target sequencing (GBTS), and 100 SNPs were genotyped by kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) assay. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) and expected heterozygosity (gene diversity) values were 0.33 and 0.42, respectively. Diversity analysis revealed the prevalence of low to moderate genetic diversity in the broccoli accessions indicating a narrow genetic base. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses revealed that the 372 accessions could be clustered into two main groups but with weak groupings. STRUCTURE analysis also suggested the presence of two subpopulations with weak genetic structure. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) identified 13% variance among populations and 87% within populations revealing very low population differentiation, which could be attributed to massive gene flow and the reproductive biology of the crop. Based on high resolving power, a set of 28 KASP markers was chosen for DNA fingerprinting of the broccoli accessions for seed authentication and varietal identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to measure diversity and population structure of a large collection of broccoli in China and also the first application of GBTS and KASP techniques in genetic characterization of broccoli. This work broadens the understanding of diversity, phylogeny, and population structure of a large collection of broccoli, which may enhance future breeding efforts to achieve higher productivity.

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          Most cited references 79

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          The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools

          Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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            Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform

            Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals. Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ∼10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package. Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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              MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

              The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                04 June 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Vegetables, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hangzhou, China
                2Central Laboratory of Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hangzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sanghyeob Lee, Sejong University, South Korea

                Reviewed by: Sung-Chur Sim, Sejong University, South Korea; Jundae Lee, Jeonbuk National University, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Honghui Gu, guhh2199@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Plant Breeding, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2021.655254
                8213352
                34149754
                49bb328c-0a1a-4ffd-963e-f12e103b49d3
                Copyright © 2021 Shen, Wang, Shaw, Yu, Sheng, Zhao, Li and Gu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 79, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China 10.13039/501100012166
                Award ID: 2017YFE0114500
                Award ID: 2017YFD0101805
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province 10.13039/501100004731
                Award ID: LQ20C150001
                Funded by: Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province 10.13039/501100008990
                Award ID: 2016C02051-5
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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