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      Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

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          Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis.

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                Author and article information

                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 October 2015
                : 5
                1Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia
                2Center for Molecular Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava, Slovakia
                3Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia
                4Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy, University of Turku, Finland

                Reviewed by: Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Daisuke Ekuni, Okayama University, Japan

                *Correspondence: Peter Celec petercelec@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2015 Tóthová, Kamodyová, Červenka and Celec.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 151, Pages: 23, Words: 15843
                Funded by: Comenius University 10.13039/100007594
                Award ID: ITMS: 26240220086


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