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      Plastome phylogenomics and morphological traits analyses provide new insights into the phylogenetic position, species delimitation and speciation of Triplostegia (Caprifoliaceae)


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          The genus Triplostegia contains two recognized species, T. glandulifera and T. grandiflora, but its phylogenetic position and species delimitation remain controversial. In this study, we assembled plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) cistrons sampled from 22 wild Triplostegia individuals, each from a separate population, and examined these with 11 recently published Triplostegia plastomes. Morphological traits were measured from herbarium specimens and wild material, and ecological niche models were constructed.


          Triplostegia is a monophyletic genus within the subfamily Dipsacoideae comprising three monophyletic species, T. glandulifera, T. grandiflora, and an unrecognized species Triplostegia sp. A, which occupies much higher altitude than the other two. The new species had previously been misidentified as T. glandulifera, but differs in taproot, leaf, and other characters . Triplotegia is an old genus, with stem age 39.96 Ma, and within it T. glandulifera diverged 7.94 Ma. Triplostegia grandiflora and sp. A diverged 1.05 Ma, perhaps in response to Quaternary climate fluctuations. Niche overlap between Triplostegia species was positively correlated with their phylogenetic relatedness.


          Our results provide new insights into the species delimitation of Triplostegia, and indicate that a taxonomic revision of Triplostegia is needed. We also identified that either rpoB-trnC or ycf1 could serve as a DNA barcode for Triplostegia.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12870-023-04663-4.

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          Most cited references134

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          Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data

          Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic Contact: usadel@bio1.rwth-aachen.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

            We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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              MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

              The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

                Author and article information

                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                15 December 2023
                15 December 2023
                : 23
                : 645
                [1 ]Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, ( https://ror.org/042v6xz23) Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.9227.e, ISNI 0000000119573309, CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Kunming, Yunnan 650201 China
                [3 ]Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Watershed Ecosystem Change and Biodiversity, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, ( https://ror.org/042v6xz23) Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 China
                [4 ]Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, ( https://ror.org/01nrxwf90) Edinburgh, EH9 3JH UK
                [5 ]KU Leuven, Department of Biology, Plant Conservation and Population Biology, ( https://ror.org/05f950310) B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
                [6 ]GRID grid.254590.f, ISNI 0000000101729133, College of Letters and Sciences, , Columbus State University, University System of Georgia, ; Columbus, GA 31907-5645 USA
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 10 June 2023
                : 5 December 2023
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Plant science & Botany
                plastid genome,phylogenomics,speciation,species delimitation,triplostegia
                Plant science & Botany
                plastid genome, phylogenomics, speciation, species delimitation, triplostegia


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