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      Elimination of Piperacillin and Tazobactam by Renal Replacement Therapies with AN69 and Polysulfone Hemofilters: Evaluation of the Sieving Coefficient

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          Background/Aim: Piperacillin-tazobactam is commonly used to treat infections in ICU patients. Controversial data have been published about the sieving/saturation coefficient (Sc/Sa) of piperacillin during continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). The objective was to evaluate the Sc/Sa of piperacillin-tazobactam during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) using AN69 and polysulfone. Methods: Ringer lactate, BSA-containing Ringer lactate and plasma were circulated at 150 ml/min. The ultrafiltrate/dialysis flow was kept at 1,500 ml/min. A bolus was injected and samples were taken. Drugs were measured using HPLC. Sc/Sa was calculated according to standard formula. Results: Free passage of drugs through the membranes was reported with protein free solutions. In the presence of proteins the Sc/Sa lowered and correlated to protein free fraction. Polysulfone had a significantly higher permeability than AN69 during CVVH. Conclusion: Drug binding to albumin contributes to the decrease of the Sc/Sa of piperacillin but it does not completely justify the in vivo value obtained by some authors.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Diffusive and convective solute clearances during continuous renal replacement therapy at various dialysate and ultrafiltration flow rates

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              Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in intensive care unit patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration.

              The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam (4 g/0.5 g every 6 or 8 hours, by 20-minute intravenous infusion) were studied in 14 patients with acute renal failure who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration with AN69 membranes. Patients were grouped according to severity (CL(CR) 50 mL/min). A noncompartmental analysis was performed. The sieving coefficient (0.78 +/- 0.28) was similar to the unbound fraction (0.65 +/- 0.24) for tazobactam, but it was significantly different (0.34 +/- 0.25) from the unbound fraction (0.78 +/- 0.14) for piperacillin. Extracorporeal clearance was 37.0% +/- 28.8%, 12.7% +/- 12.6%, and 2.8% +/- 3.2% for piperacillin in each group and 62.5% +/- 44.9%, 35.4% +/- 17.0%, and 13.1% +/- 8.0% for tazobactam. No patients presented tazobactam accumulation. In patients with CL(CR) MIC90 values were 100% for a panel of 19 pathogens, but in those with CL(CR) > 50 mL/min, t(%)ss >MIC90 indexes were 55.5% and 16.6% for pathogens with MIC90 values of 32 and 64. The extracorporeal clearance of piperacillin/tazobactam is clinically significant in patients with CL(CR) > 50 mL/min, in which the risk of underdosing and clinical failure is important and extra doses are required.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 24
                : 4
                : 347-354
                aLaboratory of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, and bIntensive Care Unit, Santiago Apóstol Hospital, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
                92921 Blood Purif 2006;24:347–354
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 8
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