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      Current Status of Putative Animal Sources of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Humans: Wildlife, Domestic Animals and Pets

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          Abstract

          SARS-CoV-2 is currently considered to have emerged from a bat coronavirus reservoir. However, the real natural cycle of this virus remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to novel opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 transmission between humans and susceptible animal species. In silico and in vitro evaluation of the interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and eucaryotic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor have tentatively predicted susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection of several animal species. Although useful, these data do not always correlate with in vivo data obtained in experimental models or during natural infections. Other host biological properties may intervene such as the body temperature, level of receptor expression, co-receptor, restriction factors, and genetic background. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 also depends on the extent and duration of viral shedding in the infected host as well as population density and behaviour (group living and grooming). Overall, current data indicate that the most at-risk interactions between humans and animals for COVID-19 infection are those involving certain mustelids (such as minks and ferrets), rodents (such as hamsters), lagomorphs (especially rabbits), and felines (including cats). Therefore, special attention should be paid to the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with pets.

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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              A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

              Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                MDPI
                2076-2607
                17 April 2021
                April 2021
                : 9
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, CHU Grenoble Alpes, TIMC-IMAG, 38000 Grenoble, France; mmaurin@ 123456chu-grenoble.fr
                [2 ]IHU-Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France; florence.fenollar@ 123456univ-amu.fr (F.F.); olegusss1@ 123456gmail.com (O.M.); bernard.davoust@ 123456mageos.com (B.D.); christian.devaux@ 123456mediterranee-infection.com (C.D.)
                [3 ]IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Aix Marseille University, 13005 Marseille, France
                [4 ]IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Aix Marseille University, 13005 Marseille, France
                [5 ]Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13005 Marseille, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Didier.raoult@ 123456gmail.com
                [†]

                Current address: IHU–Méditerranée Infection, 19–21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.

                Article
                microorganisms-09-00868
                10.3390/microorganisms9040868
                8072559
                33920724
                49dd3ff9-f539-430c-8c26-dbbe0d4c9431
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                sars-cov-2,covid-19,zoonosis,wild animals,domestic animals,companion animals,pets,animal reservoirs,modes of transmission

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