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      Sarcopenia: assessment of disease burden and strategies to improve outcomes

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          Abstract

          Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, with a resultant increase in the elderly population. Aging is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength – a phenomenon called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis, which involves not only age-related changes in neuromuscular function, muscle protein turnover, and hormone levels and sensitivity, but also a chronic pro-inflammatory state, oxidative stress, and behavioral factors – in particular, nutritional status and degree of physical activity. According to the operational definition by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the diagnosis of sarcopenia requires the presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function, which can be defined by low muscle strength or low physical performance. Moreover, biomarkers of sarcopenia have been identified for its early detection and for a detailed identification of the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its development. Because sarcopenia is associated with important adverse health outcomes, such as frailty, hospitalization, and mortality, several therapeutic strategies have been identified that involve exercise training, nutritional supplementation, hormonal therapies, and novel strategies and are still under investigation. At the present time, only physical exercise has showed a positive effect in managing and preventing sarcopenia and its adverse health outcomes. Thus, further well-designed and well-conducted studies on sarcopenia are needed.

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          Most cited references 101

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          Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence.

          In this paper we extend the "network theory of aging," and we argue that a global reduction in the capacity to cope with a variety of stressors and a concomitant progressive increase in proinflammatory status are major characteristics of the aging process. This phenomenon, which we will refer to as "inflamm-aging," is provoked by a continuous antigenic load and stress. On the basis of evolutionary studies, we also argue that the immune and the stress responses are equivalent and that antigens are nothing other than particular types of stressors. We also propose to return macrophage to its rightful place as central actor not only in the inflammatory response and immunity, but also in the stress response. The rate of reaching the threshold of proinflammatory status over which diseases/disabilities ensue and the individual capacity to cope with and adapt to stressors are assumed to be complex traits with a genetic component. Finally, we argue that the persistence of inflammatory stimuli over time represents the biologic background (first hit) favoring the susceptibility to age-related diseases/disabilities. A second hit (absence of robust gene variants and/or presence of frail gene variants) is likely necessary to develop overt organ-specific age-related diseases having an inflammatory pathogenesis, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Following this perspective, several paradoxes of healthy centenarians (increase of plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins, and coagulation factors) are illustrated and explained. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of inflammation devoted to the neutralization of dangerous/harmful agents early in life and in adulthood become detrimental late in life in a period largely not foreseen by evolution, according to the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.
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            Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

            The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate predictive equations for estimating skeletal muscle (SM) mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Whole body SM mass, determined by magnetic resonance imaging, was compared with BIA measurements in a multiethnic sample of 388 men and women, aged 18-86 yr, at two different laboratories. Within each laboratory, equations for predicting SM mass from BIA measurements were derived using the data of the Caucasian subjects. These equations were then applied to the Caucasian subjects from the other laboratory to cross-validate the BIA method. Because the equations cross-validated (i.e., were not different), the data from both laboratories were pooled to generate the final regression equation SM mass (kg) = [(Ht 2 / R x 0.401) + (gender x 3.825) + (age x -0. 071)] + 5.102 where Ht is height in centimeters; R is BIA resistance in ohms; for gender, men = 1 and women = 0; and age is in years. The r(2) and SE of estimate of the regression equation were 0.86 and 2.7 kg (9%), respectively. The Caucasian-derived equation was applicable to Hispanics and African-Americans, but it underestimated SM mass in Asians. These results suggest that the BIA equation provides valid estimates of SM mass in healthy adults varying in age and adiposity.
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              Signaling in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy.

               Marco Sandri (2008)
              Muscle performance is influenced by turnover of contractile proteins. Production of new myofibrils and degradation of existing proteins is a delicate balance, which, depending on the condition, can promote muscle growth or loss. Protein synthesis and protein degradation are coordinately regulated by pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, availability of nutrients, and growth factors. Understanding the signaling that regulates muscle mass may provide potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Interv Aging
                Clin Interv Aging
                Clinical Interventions in Aging
                Clinical Interventions in Aging
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9092
                1178-1998
                2018
                14 May 2018
                : 13
                : 913-927
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Human Sciences and Quality of Life Promotion, San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Division of Internal Medicine, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi di Aragona, Salerno, Italy
                [5 ]Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy
                [6 ]Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Heart Transplantation Unit, Naples, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pasquale Abete, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via S. Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy, Tel +39 81 746 2270, Fax +39 81 746 2339, Email p.abete@ 123456unina.it
                Article
                cia-13-913
                10.2147/CIA.S149232
                5957062
                © 2018 Liguori et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Health & Social care

                assessment, sarcopenia, elderly, therapy

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