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      An update to the inventory of shore-fishes from the Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, Veracruz, México

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          Abstract

          Data on marine and brackish-water fishes recorded in the area of the Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano in the southwest Gulf of Mexico were extracted from online aggregators of georeferenced location records, the recent ichthyological literature reviewed, and collections and observations made to provide a more complete faunal inventory for that park. Those actions added 95 species to a comprehensive inventory published in 2013, and brought the total to 472 species, an increase of 22%. Seventy-four percent of the additions came from online aggregators of georeferenced species records, which clearly demonstrates the value of reviewing and incorporating such data into species inventories. However, different aggregators recorded different sets of species, and some of their data were linked to outdated taxonomy or included identification errors. Hence individual records from multiple aggregators need to be obtained and reviewed for such issues when using such data to compile and revise faunal inventories. Existing lists also need to be carefully reviewed to ensure that errors are not perpetuated during updates.

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          Recent invasion of the tropical Atlantic by an Indo-Pacific coral reef fish.

          The last tropical connection between Atlantic and Indian-Pacific habitats closed c. 2 million years ago (Ma), with the onset of cold-water upwelling off southwestern Africa. Yet comparative morphology indicates more recent connections in several taxa, including reef-associated gobies (genus Gnatholepis). Coalescence and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA cytochrome b sequences demonstrate that Gnatholepis invaded the Atlantic during an interglacial period approximately 145,000 years ago (d = 0.0054), colonizing from the Indian Ocean to the western Atlantic, and subsequently to the central ( approximately 100,000 years ago) and eastern Atlantic ( approximately 30,000 years ago). Census data show a contemporary range expansion in the northeastern Atlantic linked to global warming.
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            A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights.

            The higher-level taxonomy of the stingrays (Dasyatidae) has never been comprehensively reviewed. Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that the group is monophyletic and consists of four major subgroups, the subfamilies Dasyatinae, Neotrygoninae, Urogymninae and Hypolophinae. A morphologically based review of 89 currently recognised species, undertaken for a guide to the world's rays, indicated that most of the currently recognised dasyatid genera are not monophyletic groups. These findings were supported by molecular analyses using the NADH2 gene for about 77 of these species, and this topology is supported by preliminary analyses base on whole mitochondrial genome comparisons. These molecular analyses, based on data generated from the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life project, are the most taxon-rich data available for this family. Material from all of the presently recognised genera (Dasyatis, Pteroplatytrygon and Taeniurops [Dasyatinae]; Neotrygon and Taeniura [Neotrygoninae]; Himantura and Urogymnus [Urogymninae]; and Makararaja and Pastinachus [Hypolophinae]), are included and their validity largely supported. Urogymnus and the two most species rich genera, Dasyatis and Himantura, are not considered to be monophyletic and were redefined based on external morphology. Seven new genus-level taxa are erected (Megatrygon and Telatrygon [Dasyatinae]; Brevitrygon, Fluvitrygon, Fontitrygon, Maculabatis and Pateobatis [Urogymninae], and an additional three (Bathytoshia, Hemitrygon and Hypanus [Dasyatinae]) are resurrected from the synonymy of Dasyatis. The monotypic genus Megatrygon clustered with 'amphi-American Himantura' outside the Dasyatidae, and instead as the sister group of the Potamotrygonidae and Urotrygonidae. Megatrygon is provisionally retained in the Dasyatinae pending further investigation of its internal anatomy. The morphologically divergent groups, Bathytoshia and Pteroplatytrygon, possibly form a single monophyletic group so further investigation is needed to confirm the validity of Pteroplatytrygon. A reclassification of the family Dasyatidae is provided and the above taxa are defined based on new morphological data.
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              Global biogeographical data bases on marine fishes: caveat emptor

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                October 23 2019
                October 23 2019
                : 882
                : 127-157
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.882.38449
                6821827
                31686953
                © 2019

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