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      Construction and in vivo /in vitro evaluation of a nanoporous ion-responsive targeted drug delivery system for recombinant human interferon α-2b delivery

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          Like most protein macromolecular drugs, the half-life of rhIFNɑ-2b is short, with a low drug utilization rate, and the preparation and release conditions significantly affect its stability.


          A nanoporous ion-responsive targeted drug delivery system (PIRTDDS) was designed to improve drug availability of rhIFNα-2b and target it to the lung passively with sustained release. Chitosan rhIFNα-2b carboxymethyl nanoporous microspheres (CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM) were prepared by the column method. Here, an electrostatic self-assembly technique was undertaken to improve and sustain rhIFNα-2b release rate.


          The size distribution of the microspheres was 5~15 μm, and the microspheres contained nanopores 300~400 nm in diameter. The in vitro release results showed that rhIFNα-2b and CCPM were mainly bound by ionic bonds. After self-assembling, the release mechanism was transformed into being membrane diffusion. The accumulative release amount for 24 hrs was 83.89%. Results from circular dichrogram and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that there was no significant change in the secondary structure and purity of rhIFNα-2b. Results from inhibition rate experiments for A549 cell proliferation showed that the antitumor activity of CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM for 24 hrs retained 91.98% of the stock solution, which proved that the drug-loaded nanoporous microspheres maintained good drug activity. In vivo pharmacokinetic experimental results showed that the drugs in CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM can still be detected in vivo after 24 hrs, equivalent to the stock solution at 6 hrs, which indicated that CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM had a certain sustained-release effect in vivo. The results of in vivo tissue distribution showed that CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM was mainly concentrated in the lungs of mice (1.85 times the stock solution). The pharmacodynamics results showed that CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM had an obvious antitumor effect, and the tumor inhibition efficiency was 29.2%.


          The results suggested a novel sustained-release formulation with higher drug availability and better lung targeting from CS-rhIFNα-2b-CCPM compared to the reference (the stock solution of rhIFNα-2b), and, thus, should be further studied.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

           M Lequin (2005)
          This brief note addresses the historical background of the invention of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These assays were developed independently and simultaneously by the research group of Peter Perlmann and Eva Engvall at Stockholm University in Sweden and by the research group of Anton Schuurs and Bauke van Weemen in The Netherlands. Today, fully automated instruments in medical laboratories around the world use the immunoassay principle with an enzyme as the reporter label for routine measurements of innumerable analytes in patient samples. The impact of EIA/ELISA is reflected in the overwhelmingly large number of times it has appeared as a keyword in the literature since the 1970s. Clinicians and their patients, medical laboratories, in vitro diagnostics manufacturers, and worldwide healthcare systems owe much to these four inventors.
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            Targeted prostaglandin E2 inhibition enhances antiviral immunity through induction of type I interferon and apoptosis in macrophages.

            Aspirin gained tremendous popularity during the 1918 Spanish Influenza virus pandemic, 50 years prior to the demonstration of their inhibitory action on prostaglandins. Here, we show that during influenza A virus (IAV) infection, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was upregulated, which led to the inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production and apoptosis in macrophages, thereby causing an increase in virus replication. This inhibitory role of PGE2 was not limited to innate immunity, because both antigen presentation and T cell mediated immunity were also suppressed. Targeted PGE2 suppression via genetic ablation of microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase 1 (mPGES-1) or by the pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 substantially improved survival against lethal IAV infection whereas PGE2 administration reversed this phenotype. These data demonstrate that the mPGES-1-PGE2 pathway is targeted by IAV to evade host type I IFN-dependent antiviral immunity. We propose that specific inhibition of PGE2 signaling might serve as a treatment for IAV.
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              Advances in chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles.

              Within the past few years, chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles have become some of the most attractive to be studied. In contrast to all other polysaccharides, chitosan has demonstrated its unique characteristics for drug delivery platforms, including its active primary amino groups for chemical modification, simple and mild preparation methods for the encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs, mucoadhesion to facilitate transport across mucosal barriers and so on. In this review, an overview of the various types of chitosan-based drug delivery systems is provided, with special focus on polymeric drug conjugates and drug nanocarriers. The first part of the review is concerned with the development and applications of polymeric chitosan-drug conjugates. Then the chitosan-based nanocarrier systems as well as their preparation methods and applications are further discussed.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                16 July 2019
                : 14
                : 5339-5353
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University , Zhenjiang 212013, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd , Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Jiangsu Sihuan Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd , Wuxi 214000, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University , Boston, MA 02115, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Thomas J WebsterDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University , 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA02115, USATel +1 617 373 6585Email th.webster@
                Ying XuCollege of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University , Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang212013, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 5 118 503 8451Email ingyx@
                © 2019 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 5, References: 54, Pages: 15
                Original Research


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