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      Over-expression of arginine vasopressin in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus and its potential relationship with development of diabetic nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          We aimed to assess our hypothesis that the expression changes of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of hypothalamus and V2 receptor for AVP (RVP) in kidney may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN).

          Material and methods

          Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control group and the diabetes mellitus (DM) group. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and electron microscopy were used for morphological studies. Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is standard for visualization of reactive astrocytes in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus was used for immunofluorescence of AVP. Kidney was used for immunohistochemical staining of RVP. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used for quantitative determinations of AVP mRNA in hypothalamus and RVP mRNA in kidney. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression of AVP in hypothalamus and RVP in kidney.

          Results

          Morphological studies showed abnormalities in kidney and hypothalamus in the DM group. The number of neurons and the gray value of astrocytes in hypothalamus in the DM group were markedly decreased. The expression level of AVP in hypothalamus and the expression level of RVP in kidney of DM rats were significantly increased. The positive correlations between the proteinuria and expression (mRNA and protein) of AVP, proteinuria and expression (mRNA and protein) of RVP, and the expression of AVP and RVP levels were found.

          Conclusions

          AVP was upregulated in the MNCs of hypothalamus and RVP was upregulated in kidney in streptozotocin-induced DM rats, indicating their potential roles in the development of DN.

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          Most cited references29

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          Diabetic nephropathy: mechanisms of renal disease progression.

          Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive amassing of extracellular matrix (ECM) with thickening of glomerular and tubular basement membranes and increased amount of mesangial matrix, which ultimately progress to glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. In view of this outcome, it would mean that all the kidney cellular elements, i.e., glomerular endothelia, mesangial cells, podocytes, and tubular epithelia, are targets of hyperglycemic injury. Conceivably, high glucose activates various pathways via similar mechanisms in different cell types of the kidney except for minor exceptions that are related to the selective expression of a given molecule in a particular renal compartment. To begin with, there is an obligatory excessive channeling of glucose intermediaries into various metabolic pathways with generation of advanced glycation products (AGEs), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), GTP-binding proteins, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS seem to be the common denominator in various pathways and are central to the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic injury. In addition, there are marked alterations in intraglomerular hemodynamics, i.e., hyperfiltration, and this along with metabolic derangements adversely compounds the hyperglycemia-induced injury. Here, the information compiled under various subtitles of this article is derived from an enormous amount of data summarized in several excellent literature reviews, and thus their further reading is suggested to gain in-depth knowledge of each of the subject matter.
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            Diabetic endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice develop advanced diabetic nephropathy.

            The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains poorly defined, and animal models that represent the human disease have been lacking. It was demonstrated recently that the severe endothelial dysfunction that accompanies a diabetic state may cause an uncoupling of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) axis, resulting in increased levels of VEGF and excessive endothelial cell proliferation. It was hypothesized further that VEGF-NO uncoupling could be a major contributory mechanism that leads to diabetic vasculopathy. For testing of this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in eNO synthase knockout mice (eNOS KO) and C57BL6 controls. Diabetic eNOS KO mice developed hypertension, albuminuria, and renal insufficiency with arteriolar hyalinosis, mesangial matrix expansion, mesangiolysis with microaneurysms, and Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules. Glomerular and peritubular capillaries were increased with endothelial proliferation and VEGF expression. Diabetic eNOS KO mice showed increased mortality at 5 mo. All of the functional and histologic changes were improved with insulin therapy. Inhibition of eNO predisposes mice to classic diabetic nephropathy. The mechanism likely is due to VEGF-NO uncoupling with excessive endothelial cell proliferation coupled with altered autoregulation consequent to the development of preglomerular arteriolar disease. Endothelial dysfunction in human diabetes is common, secondary to effects of glucose, advanced glycation end products, C-reactive protein, uric acid, and oxidants. It was postulated that endothelial dysfunction should predict nephropathy and that correction of the dysfunction may prevent these important complications.
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              Modelling diabetic nephropathy in mice

              Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the developed world. Accordingly, an urgent need exists for new, curative treatments as well as for biomarkers to stratify risk of DN among individuals with diabetes mellitus. A barrier to progress in these areas has been a lack of animal models that faithfully replicate the main features of human DN. Such models could be used to define the pathogenesis, identify drug targets and test new therapies. Owing to their tractability for genetic manipulation, mice are widely used to model human diseases, including DN. Questions have been raised, however, about the general utility of mouse models in human drug discovery. Standard mouse models of diabetes typically manifest only modest kidney abnormalities, whereas accelerated models, induced by superimposing genetic stressors, recapitulate key features of human DN. Incorporation of systems biology approaches and emerging data from genomics and metabolomics studies should enable further model refinement. Here, we discuss the current status of mouse models for DN, their limitations and opportunities for improvement. We emphasize that future efforts should focus on generating robust models that reproduce the major clinical and molecular phenotypes of human DN.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arch Med Sci
                Arch Med Sci
                AMS
                Archives of Medical Science : AMS
                Termedia Publishing House
                1734-1922
                1896-9151
                19 January 2020
                2020
                : 16
                : 5
                : 1130-1139
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China
                [2 ]Department of Geriatrics, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Prof. Xianhua Li, Department of Nephrology, Qi Lu Hospital of Shandong University, 107 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012, China. Phone: +86-0531-82169315, Fax: +86-0531-86927544. E-mail: lixianhua_sd@ 123456sohu.com
                Article
                39629
                10.5114/aoms.2020.92402
                7444698
                49ef741f-2eeb-4ef0-9dff-7f146ec28bd5
                Copyright: © 2020 Termedia & Banach

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                History
                : 16 October 2017
                : 27 January 2018
                Categories
                Basic Research

                Medicine
                diabetic nephropathy,arginine vasopressin,receptor for arginine vasopressin
                Medicine
                diabetic nephropathy, arginine vasopressin, receptor for arginine vasopressin

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