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      Bisdemethoxycurcumin Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation Through Akt Inactivation via CYLD-Mediated Deubiquitination

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          Abstract

          Background

          Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), a stable bioactive ingredient in curcuminoids, is associated with various antitumor functions, such as proliferation inhibition, metastasis suppression and apoptosis induction, in many cancer types. However, the mechanism of BDMC in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.

          Methods

          We assessed the toxicity and the inhibitory effect of BDMC in the HepG2 cell line by using CCK-8 and colony formation assays. The regulatory effects of BDMC on Akt and MAPK signaling were investigated by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation.

          Results

          We found that the half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of BDMC after 48 hrs of treatment was 59.13 μM, and BDMC inhibited proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect was caused by the inactivation of Akt signaling, but not Erk, Jnk or p38 signaling. In addition, the inactivation of Akt signaling was attributed to the inhibition of ubiquitination mediated by K63-Ub but not K48-Ub. Furthermore, we found that BDMC upregulated the expression of CYLD, leading to Akt deubiquitination and inactivation.

          Conclusion

          BDMC inhibited HCC cell proliferation, and that this effect was induced by Akt inactivation via CYLD-mediated deubiquitination.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The two TORCs and Akt.

          The regulatory circuits that control the activities of the two distinct target of rapamycin (TOR) complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, and of Akt have been a focus of intense research in recent years. It has become increasingly evident that these regulatory circuits control some of the most fundamental aspects of metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation at both the cellular and organismal levels. As such, they also play a pivotal role in the genesis of diseases including cancer, diabetes, aging, and degenerative diseases. This review highlights recent developments aimed at deciphering the interplay between Akt and mTORCs as well as their role in embryonic development and in cancer.
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            The E3 ligase TRAF6 regulates Akt ubiquitination and activation.

            Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological functions, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Because Akt (also known as protein kinase B) resides primarily in the cytosol, it is not known how these signaling molecules are recruited to the plasma membrane and subsequently activated by growth factor stimuli. We found that the protein kinase Akt undergoes lysine-63 chain ubiquitination, which is important for Akt membrane localization and phosphorylation. TRAF6 was found to be a direct E3 ligase for Akt and was essential for Akt ubiquitination, membrane recruitment, and phosphorylation upon growth-factor stimulation. The human cancer-associated Akt mutant displayed an increase in Akt ubiquitination, in turn contributing to the enhancement of Akt membrane localization and phosphorylation. Thus, Akt ubiquitination is an important step for oncogenic Akt activation.
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              The Skp2-SCF E3 ligase regulates Akt ubiquitination, glycolysis, herceptin sensitivity, and tumorigenesis.

              Akt kinase plays a central role in cell growth, metabolism, and tumorigenesis. The TRAF6 E3 ligase orchestrates IGF-1-mediated Akt ubiquitination and activation. Here, we show that Akt ubiquitination is also induced by activation of ErbB receptors; unexpectedly, and in contrast to IGF-1 induced activation, the Skp2 SCF complex, not TRAF6, is a critical E3 ligase for ErbB-receptor-mediated Akt ubiquitination and membrane recruitment in response to EGF. Skp2 deficiency impairs Akt activation, Glut1 expression, glucose uptake and glycolysis, and breast cancer progression in various tumor models. Moreover, Skp2 overexpression correlates with Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis and serves as a marker for poor prognosis in Her2-positive patients. Finally, Skp2 silencing sensitizes Her2-overexpressing tumors to Herceptin treatment. Our study suggests that distinct E3 ligases are utilized by diverse growth factors for Akt activation and that targeting glycolysis sensitizes Her2-positive tumors to Herceptin treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                05 March 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 993-1001
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Abdominal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Breast Surgery, Breast Tumor Center, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Statistical Science, Southern Methodist University , Dallas, TX 75275, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Youxing Huang Department of Abdominal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , No. 111 Dade Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13632255441Fax + 86-20-39318790 Email waiqike7@163.com
                Article
                231814
                10.2147/DDDT.S231814
                7062405
                © 2020 Qiu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 33, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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