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      The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is involved in ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

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      Mitochondrion

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 103

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          Deficient long-term memory in mice with a targeted mutation of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein.

          The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) has been implicated in the activation of protein synthesis required for long-term facilitation, a cellular model of memory in Aplysia. Our studies with fear conditioning and with the water maze show that mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha and delta isoforms of CREB are profoundly deficient in long-term memory. In contrast, short-term memory, lasting between 30 and 60 min, is normal. Consistent with models claiming a role for long-term potentiation (LTP) in memory, LTP in hippocampal slices from CREB mutants decayed to baseline 90 min after tetanic stimulation. However, paired-pulse facilitation and posttetanic potentiation are normal. These results implicate CREB-dependent transcription in mammalian long-term memory.
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            The emerging role of Nrf2 in mitochondrial function

            The transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2; gene name NFE2L2) allows adaptation and survival under conditions of stress by regulating the gene expression of diverse networks of cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and detoxification enzymes as well as proteins that assist in the repair or removal of damaged macromolecules. Nrf2 has a crucial role in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis by regulating the biosynthesis, utilization, and regeneration of glutathione, thioredoxin, and NADPH and by controlling the production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria and NADPH oxidase. Under homeostatic conditions, Nrf2 affects the mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation, availability of substrates (NADH and FADH2/succinate) for respiration, and ATP synthesis. Under conditions of stress or growth factor stimulation, activation of Nrf2 counteracts the increased reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria via transcriptional upregulation of uncoupling protein 3 and influences mitochondrial biogenesis by maintaining the levels of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, as well as by promoting purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Pharmacological Nrf2 activators, such as the naturally occurring isothiocyanate sulforaphane, inhibit oxidant-mediated opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and mitochondrial swelling. Curiously, a synthetic 1,4-diphenyl-1,2,3-triazole compound, originally designed as an Nrf2 activator, was found to promote mitophagy, thereby contributing to the overall mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, Nrf2 is a prominent player in supporting the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondria, and this role is particularly crucial under conditions of stress.
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              Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

              Although it is well established that physical activity increases mitochondrial content in muscle, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have only recently been elucidated. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important component of different diseases associated with aging, such as Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. PGC-1alpha itself is regulated by several different key factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, which will be reviewed in this chapter. Of those, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is of major importance. AMPK acts as an energy sensor of the cell and works as a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. AMPK activity has been shown to decrease with age, which may contribute to decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and function with aging. Given the potentially important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases and in the process of aging, understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide potentially important novel therapeutic targets.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Mitochondrion
                Mitochondrion
                Elsevier BV
                15677249
                March 2021
                March 2021
                : 57
                : 63-75
                Article
                10.1016/j.mito.2020.12.008
                © 2021

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