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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      New Progress in Improving the Delivery Methods of Bisphosphonates in the Treatment of Bone Tumors


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          Bone tumors are tumors that occur in the bone or its accessory tissues, including primary tumors and metastatic tumors. The main mechanism of bisphosphonate is to inhibit the resorption of destructive bone, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts and reduce the concentration of blood calcium. Therefore, bisphosphonates can be used for malignant hypercalcaemia, pain caused by osteolytic bone metastasis, prevention of osteolytic bone metastasis, multiple myeloma osteopathy, improving radiosensitivity and so on. However, the traditional administration of bisphosphonates can cause a series of adverse reactions. To overcome this disadvantage, it is necessary to develop novel methods to improve the delivery of bisphosphonates. In this paper, the latest research progress of new and improved bisphosphonate drug delivery methods in the treatment of bone tumors is reviewed. At present, the main design idea is to connect bisphosphonate nanoparticles, liposomes, microspheres, microcapsules, couplings, prodrugs and bone tissue engineering to targeted anti-tumors systems, and positive progress has been made in in vitro and animal experiments. However, its safety and effectiveness in human body still need to be verified by more studies.

          Most cited references93

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications

            Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to ‘second-generation liposomes’, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.
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              Metal-Organic Framework (MOF)-Based Drug/Cargo Delivery and Cancer Therapy.

              Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-an emerging class of hybrid porous materials built from metal ions or clusters bridged by organic linkers-have attracted increasing attention in recent years. The superior properties of MOFs, such as well-defined pore aperture, tailorable composition and structure, tunable size, versatile functionality, high agent loading, and improved biocompatibility, make them promising candidates as drug delivery hosts. Furthermore, scientists have made remarkable achievements in the field of nanomedical applications of MOFs, owing to their facile synthesis on the nanoscale and alternative functionalization via inclusion and surface chemistry. A brief introduction to the applications of MOFs in controlled drug/cargo delivery and cancer therapy that have been reported in recent years is provided here.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                10 December 2021
                : 15
                : 4939-4959
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute , Shenyang, 110042, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Su Li Department of Pharmacy, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute , No. 44, Xiaoheyan Road, Dadong District, Shenyang, 110042, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China Tel +86-24-31916806; +86 13709819060 Email lisu@cancerhosp-ln-cmu.com
                Author information
                © 2021 Zhong and Li.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 06 September 2021
                : 11 November 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 93, Pages: 21

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                bone tumor,bisphosphonate,drug delivery system,tumor bone metastasis,bone defect repair


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