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      A scoping review on the impact of hydrophilic versus non-hydrophilic intermittent catheters on UTI, QoL, satisfaction, preference, and other outcomes in neurogenic and non-neurogenic patients suffering from urinary retention


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          For patients suffering from urinary retention due to neurogenic [e.g., spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida (SB), multiple sclerosis (MS)] or non-neurogenic [e.g., cancer, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH)] causes, intermittent catheterization is the primary choice for bladder emptying. This scoping review compared hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters (HCICs) with non-hydrophilic (uncoated) catheters in neurogenic and non-neurogenic patients with respect to satisfaction, preference, adverse events, urinary tract infection (UTI), quality of life (QoL), cost effectiveness, pain, and discomfort.


          A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, and available clinical practice guidelines and was limited to systematic reviews/meta-analysis and clinical studies (randomized trials, cohort and case–control studies) published in English between 2000 and 2020. A narrative synthesis was performed, comparing HCIC with non-hydrophilic catheters in each pathology. The articles where critically appraised and weighted according to their level of evidence based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence grading.


          Thirty seven original articles and 40 reviews were included. The comparison of HCICs versus non-hydrophilic catheters was well-documented in patients with mixed pathology, SCI, and to some extent SB. The available evidence predominantly indicates better outcomes with HCICs as reported by study authors, particularly, greater UTI reduction and improved satisfaction, cost-effectiveness, and QoL. However, SB studies in children did not report reduction in UTIs. Children complained about slippery catheters, indicating possible touching of the surface during insertion, which may compromise cleanliness of the procedure and affect outcomes such as UTI. Limited studies were available exclusively on BPH and none on MS; however, most studies performed on mixed pathologies, including BPH and MS, indicated strong preference for HCICs compared to non-hydrophilic catheters.


          The findings generally support HCICs over non-hydrophilic catheters; however, most studies were fairly small, often used a mix of pathologies, and the conclusions were often based on studies with high drop-out rates that were therefore underpowered. Larger studies are needed to support the general finding that HCICs are the preferred choice in most populations. Additional training in children or redesigned catheters may be necessary for this age-group to fully benefit from the advantages of HCICs.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12894-022-01102-8.

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          Most cited references79

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          Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

          Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.
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            Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America

            Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of persons with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI), both symptomatic and asymptomatic, were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The evidence-based guidelines encompass diagnostic criteria, strategies to reduce the risk of CA-UTIs, strategies that have not been found to reduce the incidence of urinary infections, and management strategies for patients with catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria or symptomatic urinary tract infection. These guidelines are intended for use by physicians in all medical specialties who perform direct patient care, with an emphasis on the care of patients in hospitals and long-term care facilities.
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              Complications of intermittent catheterization: their prevention and treatment.

              Literature review to evaluate the complications seen in patients on intermittent catheterization (IC) and intermittent self-catheterization (ISC). To find the prevalence of most complications seen in patients on IC. To study the prevention and the treatment of these complications. An international literature review. Most relevant articles on the subject are reviewed. Urinary tract infection is the most frequent complication in patients performing IC. Catheterization frequency and the avoidance of bladder overfilling are amongst the most important prevention measures. Asymptomatic bacteriuria does not need to be treated with antibiotics. Long-term antibacterial prevention does seem to bear a risk of development of bacterial resistance. Previous treatment with indwelling catheters is a risk factor for chronic infection and urinary sepsis. Prostatitis is more frequently present than often thought. Epididymitis and urethritis are rare. Trauma from catheterization occurs regularly, but lasting effects are more limited. However, the prevalence of urethral strictures and false passages increases with longer use of IC. The use of hydrophilic catheters might be able to lower the urethral complication rate but additional proof through comparative studies is needed. The most important prevention measures are good education of all involved in IC, good patient compliance, the use of a proper material and the application of a good catheterization technique.

                Author and article information

                BMC Urol
                BMC Urol
                BMC Urology
                BioMed Central (London )
                19 September 2022
                19 September 2022
                : 22
                GRID grid.424097.c, ISNI 0000 0004 1755 4974, Coloplast A/S, ; Holtedam 1–3, 3050 Humlebaek, Denmark
                © The Author(s) 2022

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                © The Author(s) 2022

                intermittent catheter,hydrophilic,uncoated,urinary,bladder management,spinal cord injury,spina bifida


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