Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance survey was conducted in 2016–2017 to estimate the burden of drug-resistant TB in Côte d'Ivoire.
Design: A cross-sectional cluster-based survey was conducted. All eligible smear positive patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect clinical and sociodemographic information and tested by the Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF) assay. If resistant to rifampicin, solid and liquid cultures were performed. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was conducted in liquid medium for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, ofloxacin, and amikacin.
Results: Of the 1105 sputum smear positive patients enrolled, 995 new and 100 previously treated patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by Xpert. Proportion of patients with rifampicin resistance was 4.6% (95% CI: 2.4–6.7) and 22% (95% CI: 13.7–30.3), respectively, for new and previously treated patients. Second-line DST results were available for most rifampicin-resistant patients. None were resistant to amikacin, only two were ofloxacin-resistant. Apart from the antecedent of previously treatment for TB, no other risk factors for rifampicin resistance were detected.
Conclusion: Prevalence of rifampicin resistance among TB patients in Côte d'Ivoire is higher than that in other countries in the region. Surveillance of drug resistance, through an expanded GeneXpert network, and programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) must be strengthened in Côte d'Ivoire.