Lin Tian 1 , S. Andrew Hires 1 , Tianyi Mao 1 , Daniel Huber 1 , M. Eugenia Chiappe 1 , Sreekanth H. Chalasani 2 , Leopoldo Petreanu 1 , Jasper Akerboom 1 , Sean A. McKinney 1 , Eric R. Schreiter 4 , Cornelia I. Bargmann 2 , Vivek Jayaraman 1 , Karel Svoboda 1 , Loren L. Looger 1
8 November 2009
Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) can be used to image activity in defined neuronal populations. However, current GECIs produce inferior signals compared to synthetic indicators and recording electrodes, precluding detection of low firing rates. We developed a single-wavelength GECI based on GCaMP2 (GCaMP3), with increased baseline fluorescence (3x), dynamic range (3x), and higher affinity for calcium (1.3x). GCaMP3 fluorescence changes triggered by single action potentials were detected in pyramidal cell dendrites, with signal-to-noise ratio and photostability significantly better than GCaMP2, D3cpVenus, and TN-XXL. In Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory neurons and the Drosophila melanogaster antennal lobe, sensory stimulation-evoked fluorescence responses were significantly enhanced with the new indicator (4–6x). In somatosensory and motor cortical neurons in the intact mouse, GCaMP3 detected calcium transients with amplitudes linearly dependent on action potential number. Long-term imaging in the motor cortex of behaving mice revealed large fluorescence changes in imaged neurons over months.