Leukocyte accumulation in the kidney is observed in patients with IgA nephropathy. Chemokines are a large family of cytokines chemotactic for leukocytes and have been shown to be upregulated in renal diseases. We previously reported that the gene expression of lymphotactin, a sole member of C chemokine subfamily, is enhanced in an animal model of crescentic glomerulonephritis, but its expression in human renal diseases is totally unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of mRNAs of lymphotactin and some other chemokines in IgA nephropathy. The expression of mRNAs for three chemokines, lymphotactin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β, in renal cortex was increased and the levels of lymphotactin and MCP-1 mRNAs were statistically higher in patients with glomerular crescents than in those without crescents. These levels also correlated with tubulointerstitial changes and urinary protein excretion. Glomerular levels of mRNAs for lymphotactin and MCP-1, but not MIP-1β, were higher in IgA nephropathy than controls. By immunohistochemical analysis, lymphotactin was detected in tryptase-positive cells (putative mast cells) in the interstitial space. These results suggest that lymphotactin, as well as MCP-1, may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and disease progression in IgA nephropathy.