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      A global picture: therapeutic perspectives for COVID-19

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          Abstract

          The COVID-19 pandemic is a lethal virus outbreak by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has severely affected human lives and the global economy. The most vital part of the research and development of therapeutic agents is to design drug products to manage COVID-19 efficiently. Numerous attempts have been in place to determine the optimal drug dose and combination of drugs to treat the disease on a global scale. This article documents the information available on SARS-CoV-2 and its life cycle, which will aid in the development of the potential treatment options. A consolidated summary of several natural and repurposed drugs to manage COVID-19 is depicted with summary of current vaccine development. People with high age, comorbity and concomitant illnesses such as overweight, metabolic disorders, pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, renal failure, fatty liver and neoplastic disorders are more prone to create serious COVID-19 and its consequences. This article also presents an overview of post-COVID-19 complications in patients.

          Plain language summary

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the coronavirus disease i.e., COVID-19. This article encompasses basic information about coronavirus and COVID-19. It includes information about viral transmission and subsequent events for COVID-19 in a person, and it presents different drugs and vaccines utilized for the management of COVID-19. Several natural drugs are proposed to manage COVID-19. It also has an overview about post-COVID-19 complications in recovered patients.

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          Most cited references201

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          A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

          Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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            SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor

            Summary The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.
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              Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia

              Abstract Background The initial cases of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and January 2020. We analyzed data on the first 425 confirmed cases in Wuhan to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of NCIP. Methods We collected information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of laboratory-confirmed cases of NCIP that had been reported by January 22, 2020. We described characteristics of the cases and estimated the key epidemiologic time-delay distributions. In the early period of exponential growth, we estimated the epidemic doubling time and the basic reproductive number. Results Among the first 425 patients with confirmed NCIP, the median age was 59 years and 56% were male. The majority of cases (55%) with onset before January 1, 2020, were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, as compared with 8.6% of the subsequent cases. The mean incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 7.0), with the 95th percentile of the distribution at 12.5 days. In its early stages, the epidemic doubled in size every 7.4 days. With a mean serial interval of 7.5 days (95% CI, 5.3 to 19), the basic reproductive number was estimated to be 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9). Conclusions On the basis of this information, there is evidence that human-to-human transmission has occurred among close contacts since the middle of December 2019. Considerable efforts to reduce transmission will be required to control outbreaks if similar dynamics apply elsewhere. Measures to prevent or reduce transmission should be implemented in populations at risk. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and others.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Immunotherapy
                Immunotherapy
                IMT
                Immunotherapy
                Future Medicine Ltd (London, UK )
                1750-743X
                1750-7448
                21 February 2022
                April 2022
                21 February 2022
                : 10.2217/imt-2021-0168
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 380009, India
                2Department of Pharmaceutics, K B Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidhyalaya, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382023, India
                3Department of Immunology & Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, McAllen, TX 78503, USA
                4South Texas Center of Excellence in Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, McAllen, TX 78503, USA
                5Institute for Health & Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, 3030, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: Tel.: +91 703 091 9407; vivek7chavda@ 123456gmail.com
                [** ]Author for correspondence: Tel.: +1 956 296 1734; murali.yallapu@ 123456utrgv.edu
                ***Author for correspondence: Tel.: +61 399 192 025; Vasso.Apostolopoulos@ 123456vu.edu.au
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7701-8597
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6788-2771
                Article
                10.2217/imt-2021-0168
                8884157
                35187954
                4a2610bd-c261-41eb-8a95-4ec44c520963
                © 2022 Future Medicine Ltd

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

                History
                : 29 June 2021
                : 19 January 2022
                : 21 February 2022
                Page count
                Pages: 21
                Categories
                Review

                coronavirus,covid-19,drug discovery process,drug repurposing,drug target,pandemic,sars-cov-2,vaccines

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