Objective: To further evaluate whether fertility is decreased among a cohort of men with previous unilateral cryptorchidism as compared with a control group of men. Subjects and Methods: Formerly unilateral cryptorchid men who had undergone orchiopexy between the years of 1955 and 1975 at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh and a control group of men who were matched for age of an unrelated surgery at the same institution were evaluated by review of medical records and by completion of a questionnaire. 359 previously cryptorchid men were identified as having attempted paternity. Of these men, 320 had information concerning preoperative testicular location and 163 for preoperative testicular size. 106 of these men had levels of testosterone, inhibin B, FSH, and LH measured, while 95 of the men had semen analyses. Results: Among men who had attempted paternity, there was no statistical difference in success of paternity between the previously unilateral group (89.7%) and the control group (93.7%). There was no difference in the mean time to conception (7.1 ± 0.7 months for the unilateral group vs. 6.9 ± 2.3 for the control group). Within the unilateral group in regard to success at paternity, no difference was found compared with the age of orchiopexy, preoperative testicular location, or preoperative testicular size. Inhibin B levels were lower among the unilateral group. FSH, LH, testosterone, sperm density, motility and morphology were not different, but considerable variation was noted within the cryptorchid group. Conclusions: In this continued evaluation of a cohort of previously cryptorchid men who had undergone unilateral orchiopexy, paternity does not appear to be significantly compromised after unilateral cryptorchidism. Unilateral cryptorchidism appears to be one of several factors contributing to infertility, similar to those found in the general population. No correlation was found between success at paternity and the age of orchiopexy, preoperative testicular size or preoperative testicular location. Inhibin B levels were lower while FSH, LH, T and sperm parameters did not differ.