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      Fast Tracks and Roadblocks for Zika Vaccines

      1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , *

      Vaccines

      MDPI

      Zika virus, vaccine, immune responses, delivery systems

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          Abstract

          In early 2014, a relatively obscure virus, the Zika virus, made headlines worldwide following an increase in the number of congenital malformations. Since then, research on Zika virus, treatment and vaccines have progressed swiftly with various drugs being repurposed and vaccines heading into clinical trials. Nonetheless, the need for a vaccine is crucial in order to eradicate this re-emerging arthropod-borne virus which remained silent since its first discovery in 1947. In this review, we focused on how the inconspicuous virus managed to spread, the key immunological factors required for a vaccine and the various vaccine platforms that are currently being studied.

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          Most cited references 84

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          Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia.

          In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of consensus primers detected Zika virus RNA in the serum of the patients but no dengue virus or other arboviral RNA. No previous outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented. We obtained serum samples from patients and interviewed patients for information on clinical signs and symptoms. Zika virus disease was confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA or a specific neutralizing antibody response to Zika virus in the serum. Patients with IgM antibody against Zika virus who had a potentially cross-reactive neutralizing-antibody response were classified as having probable Zika virus disease. We conducted a household survey to estimate the proportion of Yap residents with IgM antibody against Zika virus and to identify possible mosquito vectors of Zika virus. We identified 49 confirmed and 59 probable cases of Zika virus disease. The patients resided in 9 of the 10 municipalities on Yap. Rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis were common symptoms. No hospitalizations, hemorrhagic manifestations, or deaths due to Zika virus were reported. We estimated that 73% (95% confidence interval, 68 to 77) of Yap residents 3 years of age or older had been recently infected with Zika virus. Aedes hensilli was the predominant mosquito species identified. This outbreak of Zika virus illness in Micronesia represents transmission of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia. Although most patients had mild illness, clinicians and public health officials should be aware of the risk of further expansion of Zika virus transmission. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity.

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              Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA

              Clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 American scientists contracted Zika virus infections while working in Senegal in 2008. One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vaccines (Basel)
                Vaccines (Basel)
                vaccines
                Vaccines
                MDPI
                2076-393X
                21 November 2018
                December 2018
                : 6
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138648, Singapore; khairunnisa_ghaffar@ 123456immunol.a-star.edu.sg (K.A.G.); lisa_ng@ 123456immunol.a-star.edu.sg (L.F.P.N.)
                [2 ]Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: renia_laurent@ 123456immunol.a-star.edu.sg ; Tel.: +65-6407-0005
                vaccines-06-00077
                10.3390/vaccines6040077
                6313897
                30469444
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                delivery systems, zika virus, vaccine, immune responses

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