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Le paludisme grave d’importation chez l’adulte: étude rétrospective de treize cas admis en réanimation à Marrakech Translated title: Severe imported malaria in adults: a retrospective study of thirteen cases admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in Marrakech

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      Abstract

      Le paludisme d’importation est une affection de plus en plus fréquente en zone non endémique. Les formes graves représentent 10 % des cas de paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum. Au Maroc, plus de 50 cas de paludisme sont enregistrés chaque année dont 83 % à P. falciparum. Ont été inclus dans l’étude tous les patients ayant développé un paludisme grave, admis au service de réanimation durant la période comprise entre le 1er Novembre 2009 et le 31 décembre 2015. Les principales données épidémiologiques, les motifs d’admission, la prise en charge et l’évolution ont été étudiés. Treize patients sont retenus. L’âge moyen est de 31 ans. Tous les patients ont séjourné en afrique subsaharienne et étaient non-immuns. La chimioprophylaxie était adéquate dans 33% des cas. Le délai moyen entre le début des symptômes et l’instauration du traitement était de six jours. La parasitémie moyenne initiale était de 12 %. Les motifs d’admission en réanimation étaient un coma (15%), une convulsion (07%), une détresse respiratoire (07%), une prostration (07%), une insuffisance rénale (07%), un choc associé à un ictère et une acidose (07%) et enfin une insuffisance rénale conjuguée à un coma (07%). Tous les patients ont reçu un traitement par la quinine intraveineuse avec une dose de charge dans 100 % des cas. Le taux de mortalité était de 23 %. Les causes du décès étaient dues à la défaillance multi viscérale et au syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigu. La mortalité des formes graves du paludisme reste élevée. L’adéquation de la chimioprophylaxie associée à la précocité du diagnostic et du traitement permettrait d’améliorer significativement le pronostic de cette parasitose.

      Translated abstract

      Imported malaria is being seen with increasing frequency in non-endemic areas. Severe forms represent 10% of cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In Morocco, more than 50 cases of malaria occur each year, 83% of which with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All patients with severe malaria admitted to the Intensive Care Unit during the period between 1 November 2009 and 31 December 2015 were enrolled in our study. The main epidemiological data, the reasons for admission, the management and the outcomes of patients were studied. Thirteen patients were included in our study. The average age was 31 years. All patients had been living in sub-Saharan Africa and had no immunity to malaria. Chemoprophylaxis was adequate in 33% of cases. The mean time between symptom onset and treatment initiation was six days. Mean initial parasitemia was 12%. The main reasons for ICU admission included coma (15%), convulsion (07%), respiratory distress 07%), prostration (07%), renal failure (07%), shock associated with jaundice and acidosis (07%) and kidney failure associated with coma (07%). All patients were treated with intravenous quinine loading dose. Mortality rate was 23%. The causes of death were multi-system organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mortality associated with severe malaria remains high. The adequacy of chemoprophylaxis associated with early diagnosis and treatment would significantly improve the prognosis of this parasitic infection.

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      Most cited references 10

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      Vertical transmission of HIV-1 infection.

       M-L Newell (2015)
      Vertical transmission is the dominant mode of acquisition of infection for HIV infection in children, and about 1600 infants are newly infected each day worldwide. Without interventions the risk of transmission is between 15% and 35%, and associated with maternal disease progression, prematurity, duration of rupture of membranes, length of labour, and vaginal delivery. Breastfeeding approximately doubles the risk of vertical transmission; the additional risk of transmission through breastfeeding is approximately 15-20%, with about one-third of this accounted for by late postnatal transmission after 3 months of age. Current strategies to reduce the risk of transmission include a short course of anti-retroviral therapy, avoidance of breastfeeding and Caesarean section delivery. However, even if interventions late in pregnancy or around the time of delivery are highly effective in preventing perinatal infection, it is likely that as a public health policy they are of interest only if alternatives to breastfeeding are feasible, affordable, safe and available.
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        Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms in African children: Common TLR-4 variants predispose to severe malaria.

        Genetic host factors play a substantial role in susceptibility to and severity of malaria, which continues to cause at least one million deaths per year. Recently, members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family have been shown to be involved in recognition of the etiologic organism Plasmodium falciparum: The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor induces signaling in host cells via TLR-2 and -4, whereas hemozoin-induced immune activation involves TLR-9. Binding of microbial ligands to the respective TLRs triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines via the TLR/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain and may contribute to the host response in malaria, including cytokine induction and fever. In a case-control study among 870 Ghanaian children, we examined the influence of TLR-2, -4, and -9 polymorphisms in susceptibility to severe malaria. TLR-2 variants common in Caucasians and Asians were completely absent. However, we found a rare previously undescribed mutation (Leu658Pro), which impairs signaling via TLR-2. We failed to detect any polymorphisms within the TLR-9 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain. Two frequent TLR-9 promoter polymorphisms did not show a clear association with malaria severity. In contrast, the TLR-4-Asp299Gly variant occurred at a high rate of 17.6% in healthy controls and was even more frequent in severe malaria patients (24.1%, P < 0.05). Likewise, TLR-4-Thr399Ile was seen in 2.4% of healthy children and in 6.2% of patients (P = 0.02). TLR-4-Asp299Gly and TLR-4-Thr399Ile conferred 1.5- and 2.6-fold increased risks of severe malaria, respectively. These findings suggest TLR4-mediated responses to malaria in vivo and TLR-4 polymorphisms to be associated with disease manifestation.
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          Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency

          Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from each donor. One slide from each of the first 35 donations was distributed to each of 28 individuals acknowledged by reputation as having expertise in the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. These reference readers recorded presence or absence of Plasmodium species and parasite density. A composite diagnosis for each donation was determined based on microscopic findings and species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results More than 12, 000 slides were generated from 124 donations. Reference readers correctly identified presence of parasites on 85% of slides with densities 350 parasites/μl. Percentages of agreement with composite diagnoses were highest for Plasmodium falciparum (99%), followed by Plasmodium vivax (86%). Conclusion Herein, a standardized method for producing large numbers of consistently high quality, durable Giemsa-stained blood smears and validating composite diagnoses for the purpose of creating a malaria slide repository in support of initiatives to improve training and competency assessment amidst a background of variability in diagnosis is described.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, Hôpital Militaire Avicenne Marrakech, Maroc
            [2 ]Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Militaire Avicenne Marrakech, Maroc
            [3 ]Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital Militaire Avicenne Marrakech, Maroc
            Author notes
            [& ]Corresponding author: El Mezouari El Mostafa, Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, Hôpital Militaire Avicenne Marrakech, Maroc
            Journal
            Pan Afr Med J
            Pan Afr Med J
            PAMJ
            The Pan African Medical Journal
            The African Field Epidemiology Network
            1937-8688
            21 November 2016
            2016
            : 25
            28292141
            5326061
            PAMJ-25-179
            10.11604/pamj.2016.25.179.8558
            © El Mostafa El Mezouari et al.

            The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Case Series

            Medicine

            resuscitation, paludisme grave, plasmodium falciparum, réanimation, severe malaria

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