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      Cancer Survivorship

      1

      New England Journal of Medicine

      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of adult cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline.

          To provide evidence-based guidance on the optimum prevention and treatment approaches in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN) in adult cancer survivors. A systematic literature search identified relevant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of CIPN. Primary outcomes included incidence and severity of neuropathy as measured by neurophysiologic changes, patient-reported outcomes, and quality of life. A total of 48 RCTs met eligibility criteria and comprise the evidentiary basis for the recommendations. Trials tended to be small and heterogeneous, many with insufficient sample sizes to detect clinically important differences in outcomes. Primary outcomes varied across the trials, and in most cases, studies were not directly comparable because of different outcomes, measurements, and instruments used at different time points. The strength of the recommendations is based on the quality, amount, and consistency of the evidence and the balance between benefits and harms. On the basis of the paucity of high-quality, consistent evidence, there are no agents recommended for the prevention of CIPN. With regard to the treatment of existing CIPN, the best available data support a moderate recommendation for treatment with duloxetine. Although the CIPN trials are inconclusive regarding tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline), gabapentin, and a compounded topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline HCL, and ketamine, these agents may be offered on the basis of data supporting their utility in other neuropathic pain conditions given the limited other CIPN treatment options. Further research on these agents is warranted. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
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            Prevention and Monitoring of Cardiac Dysfunction in Survivors of Adult Cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline.

            Purpose Cardiac dysfunction is a serious adverse effect of certain cancer-directed therapies that can interfere with the efficacy of treatment, decrease quality of life, or impact the actual survival of the patient with cancer. The purpose of this effort was to develop recommendations for prevention and monitoring of cardiac dysfunction in survivors of adult-onset cancers. Methods Recommendations were developed by an expert panel with multidisciplinary representation using a systematic review (1996 to 2016) of meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, and clinical experience. Study quality was assessed using established methods, per study design. The guideline recommendations were crafted in part using the Guidelines Into Decision Support methodology. Results A total of 104 studies met eligibility criteria and compose the evidentiary basis for the recommendations. The strength of the recommendations in these guidelines is based on the quality, amount, and consistency of the evidence and the balance between benefits and harms. Recommendations It is important for health care providers to initiate the discussion regarding the potential for cardiac dysfunction in individuals in whom the risk is sufficiently high before beginning therapy. Certain higher risk populations of survivors of cancer may benefit from prevention and screening strategies implemented during cancer-directed therapies. Clinical suspicion for cardiac disease should be high and threshold for cardiac evaluation should be low in any survivor who has received potentially cardiotoxic therapy. For certain higher risk survivors of cancer, routine surveillance with cardiac imaging may be warranted after completion of cancer-directed therapy, so that appropriate interventions can be initiated to halt or even reverse the progression of cardiac dysfunction.
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              Actual 10-year survival after resection of colorectal liver metastases defines cure.

              Resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in selected patients has evolved as the standard of care during the last 20 years. In the absence of prospective randomized clinical trials, a survival benefit has been deduced relative to historical controls based on actuarial data. There is now sufficient follow-up on a significant number of patients to address the curative intent of resecting CLM. Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed on patients who underwent resection of CLM from 1985 to 1994. Postoperative deaths were excluded. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated from the time of hepatectomy using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were 612 consecutive patients identified with 10-year follow-up. Median DSS was 44 months. There were 102 actual 10-year survivors. Ninety-nine (97%) of the 102 were disease free at last follow-up. Only one patient experienced a disease-specific death after 10 years of survival. In contrast, 34% of the 5-year survivors suffered a cancer-related death. Previously identified poor prognostic factors found among the 102 actual 10-year survivors included 7% synchronous disease, 36% disease-free interval less than 12 months, 25% bilobar metastases, 50% node-positive primary, 39% more than one metastasis, and 35% tumor size more than 5 cm. Patients who survive 10 years appear to be cured of their disease, whereas approximately one third of actual 5-year survivors succumb to a cancer-related death. In well-selected patients, there is at least a one in six chance of cure after hepatectomy for CLM. The presence of poor prognostic factors does not preclude the possibility of long-term survival and cure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                December 20 2018
                December 20 2018
                : 379
                : 25
                : 2438-2450
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Uptown, New York.
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1712502
                30575480
                © 2018
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