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      A High Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis Detected by Transthoracic Echocardiography with Coronary Arteriosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Objective: To examine whether aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) detected by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has a high association with coronary arteriosclerosis. Methods: Clinical and angiographic features and TTE findings were retrospectively analyzed in a blinded fashion for 138 consecutive patients, of whom 58 had AVS and 80 had non-AVS diseases. Both histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on frozen aortic valve sections obtained at autopsy from 7 AVS and 3 non-AVS patients. Results: AVS and coronary artery disease (CAD) had similar clinical risk factors. The AVS group had a higher positive rate of coronary angiography and a higher incidence rate of multivessel CAD than the non-AVS group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of AVS in diagnosing CAD were 63.8, 71.3, 61.7 and 73.1%, respectively. Early lesions of AVS were characterized by accumulation of lipid and infiltration of macrophages and T lymphocytes as indicated by immunohistochemical staining. Late lesions were characterized by formation of calcific plaques, proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and immunohistochemical staining identifying a few macrophages or T lymphocytes and little lipid accumulation on the surface of aortic valve leaflets. Late lesions in the basement of aortic valve leaflets were characterized by hyperplastic granulation tissues. Three aortic valve leaflets from the non-AVS group were characterized by nonspecific thickened tips, increased collagen, no calcification, no lipid accumulation and no inflammatory cells. Conclusions: There were significant similarities in clinical risk factors, histopathological alterations of AVS and coronary atherosclerosis. AVS detected by TTE had a high association with coronary arteriosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Clinical Factors Associated With Calcific Aortic Valve Disease fn1fn1This study was supported in part by Contracts NO1-HC85079 through HC-850086 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

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            Effect of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors on the progression of calcific aortic stenosis.

            Recent studies have supported the hypothesis that calcific aortic stenosis is the product of an active inflammatory process, with similarities to atherosclerosis. We sought to determine whether therapy with hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) might slow the progression of aortic stenosis. A retrospective study of 174 patients (mean age 68+/-12 years) with mild to moderate calcific aortic stenosis was conducted. Patients required normal left ventricular function, /=2 echocardiograms performed at least 12 months apart. Fifty-seven patients (33%) received treatment with a statin; the remaining 117 (67%) did not. The statin group was older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary disease. During a mean follow-up of 21 months, patients treated with statin had a smaller increase in peak and mean gradient and a smaller decrease in aortic valve area. When annualized, the decrease in aortic valve area for the nonstatin group was 0.11+/-0.18 cm(2) compared with 0.06+/-0.16 cm(2) for those treated with a statin (P=0.03). In multivariate analysis, statin usage was a significant independent predictor of a smaller decrease in valve area (P=0.01) and a lesser increase in peak gradient (P=0.02). Statin-treated patients, despite a higher risk profile for progression, had reduced aortic stenosis progression compared with those not treated with a statin. These data provide justification for a prospective randomized trial to substantiate whether statin therapy slows the progression of aortic stenosis.
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              Association of coronary risk factors and use of statins with progression of mild valvular aortic stenosis in older persons.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                November 2007
                12 February 2007
                : 108
                : 4
                : 322-330
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology and bPathology, Second Hospital of Shandong University, and cKey Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Shandong University Qi Lu Hospital, Jinan, China
                Article
                99103 Cardiology 2007;108:322–330
                10.1159/000099103
                17299259
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 28, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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