A new species of Gelechiidae is described as Anarsia innoxiella sp. n., based on differences in morphology and biology. It is closely related to and has hitherto been confused with the Peach Twig Borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller, 1839. Whereas larvae of the latter feed on – and are known to be a pest of – Prunus species (Rosaceae), the larva of A. innoxiella feeds on Acer species (Sapindaceae). All known synonyms of A. lineatella are discussed in detail, including Anarsia lineatella subsp. heratella Amsel, 1967, from Afghanistan and A. lineatella subsp. tauricella Amsel, 1967, from Turkey. Our study has shown no evidence for changing the present taxonomic status of these two taxa. We discuss also the status of the genus Ananarsia Amsel, 1957. The new species A. innoxiella is widely distributed in Europe and is often found in the same areas as A. lineatella, but the latter species does not occur naturally in northern Europe. A. innoxiella seems not to be of economic importance. We propose, in line with the provisions of Article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, suppression of the priority of Tinea pullatella Hübner, 1796, nomen oblitum, over Anarsia lineatella Zeller, 1839, nomen protectum. An appendix with references on the prevailing use of the latter species is included.