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      Chinese version of the severe respiratory insufficiency questionnaire for patients with COPD receiving long-term oxygen therapy

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          Patients with advanced-stage COPD often experience severe hypoxemia. Treatment with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may relieve patients’ symptoms and increase survival. As COPD is incurable, improving patients’ health-related quality of life is important. The Chinese version of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) is valid for patients with hypercapnic COPD undergoing noninvasive positive airway pressure ventilation at home. However, the reliability and validity of the Chinese SRI for patients with COPD undergoing LTOT have not been investigated.

          Patients and methods

          We analyzed reliability using Cronbach’s α coefficient. Construct validity was assessed with principal, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analysis. Concurrent validity was evaluated through the correlation between SRI domains and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) domains. Content validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between each SRI item score and the total score for the relevant domain.


          In total, 161 patients participated in this study. The Cronbach’s α coefficient for all SRI domains was >0.7, except for the attendant symptoms and sleep domain. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed a good model fit for each domain, but the factors extracted from each domain were correlated. SRI and CRQ domains correlated well with respect to similar aspects of health-related quality of life, indicating good concurrent validity. Content validity was indirectly shown by a good correlation between each item score and the total score of the relevant domain.


          The Chinese version of the SRI has a good reliability and validity for patients with COPD undergoing LTOT in China.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Nocturnal non-invasive nasal ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

          Sleep hypoventilation has been proposed as a cause of progressive hypercapnic respiratory failure and death in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to determine the effects of nocturnal non-invasive bi-level pressure support ventilation (NIV) on survival, lung function and quality of life in patients with severe hypercapnic COPD. A multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of NIV plus long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) versus LTOT alone was performed in four Australian University Hospital sleep/respiratory medicine departments in patients with severe stable smoking-related COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) 46 mm Hg and on LTOT for at least 3 months) and age 20/h) or morbid obesity (body mass index >40) were excluded. Outcome measures were survival, spirometry, arterial blood gases, polysomnography, general and disease-specific quality of life and mood. 144 patients were randomised (72 to NIV + LTOT and 72 to LTOT alone). NIV improved sleep quality and sleep-related hypercapnia acutely, and patients complied well with therapy (mean (SD) nightly use 4.5 (3.2) h). Compared with LTOT alone, NIV (mean follow-up 2.21 years, range 0.01-5.59) showed an improvement in survival with the adjusted but not the unadjusted Cox model (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.99, p = 0.045; unadjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.25, p = NS). FEV1.0 and PaCO2 measured at 6 and 12 months were not different between groups. Patients assigned to NIV + LTOT had reduced general and mental health and vigour. Nocturnal NIV in stable oxygen-dependent patients with hypercapnic COPD may improve survival, but this appears to be at the cost of worsening quality of life. ACTRN12605000205639.
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            Effect of palliative oxygen versus room air in relief of breathlessness in patients with refractory dyspnoea: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

            Palliative oxygen therapy is widely used for treatment of dyspnoea in individuals with life-limiting illness who are ineligible for long-term oxygen therapy. We assessed the effectiveness of oxygen compared with room air delivered by nasal cannula for relief of breathlessness in this population of patients. Adults from outpatient clinics at nine sites in Australia, the USA, and the UK were eligible for enrolment in this double-blind, randomised controlled trial if they had life-limiting illness, refractory dyspnoea, and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)) more than 7.3 kPa. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio by a central computer-generated system to receive oxygen or room air via a concentrator through a nasal cannula at 2 L per min for 7 days. Participants were instructed to use the concentrator for at least 15 h per day. The randomisation sequence was stratified by baseline PaO(2) with balanced blocks of four patients. The primary outcome measure was breathlessness (0-10 numerical rating scale [NRS]), measured twice a day (morning and evening). All randomised patients who completed an assessment were included in the primary analysis for that data point (no data were imputed). This study is registered, numbers NCT00327873 and ISRCTN67448752. 239 participants were randomly assigned to treatment (oxygen, n=120; room air, n=119). 112 (93%) patients assigned to receive oxygen and 99 (83%) assigned to receive room air completed all 7 days of assessments. From baseline to day 6, mean morning breathlessness changed by -0.9 points (95% CI -1.3 to -0.5) in patients assigned to receive oxygen and by -0.7 points (-1.2 to -0.2) in patients assigned to receive room air (p=0.504). Mean evening breathlessness changed by -0.3 points (-0.7 to 0.1) in the oxygen group and by -0.5 (-0.9 to -0.1) in the room air group (p=0.554). The frequency of side-effects did not differ between groups. Extreme drowsiness was reported by 12 (10%) of 116 patients assigned to receive oxygen compared with 14 (13%) of 108 patients assigned to receive room air. Two (2%) patients in the oxygen group reported extreme symptoms of nasal irritation compared with seven (6%) in the room air group. One patient reported an extremely troublesome nose bleed (oxygen group). Since oxygen delivered by a nasal cannula provides no additional symptomatic benefit for relief of refractory dyspnoea in patients with life-limiting illness compared with room air, less burdensome strategies should be considered after brief assessment of the effect of oxygen therapy on the individual patient. US National Institutes of Health, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Duke Institute for Care at the End of Life, and Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Comparison of discriminative properties among disease-specific questionnaires for measuring health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

               T Hajiro,  H Koyama,  T Izumi (1998)
              Three disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires have been introduced to assess patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Breathing Problems Questionnaire (BPQ), and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). The purpose of the present study was to make comparisons between the SGRQ, the BPQ, and the CRQ in their discriminative properties, and to clarify the characteristics of each questionnaire. One hundred forty-three patients with mild to severe COPD completed pulmonary function tests, progressive cycle ergometer testing for exercise capacity, assessment of dyspnea, anxiety, and depression, and assessment of HRQL. The frequency distributions of the questionnaire scores showed that the SGRQ and the CRQ were normally distributed and that the BPQ was skewed toward low scores. Relationships between all dimensions of the three questionnaires were significant (correlation coefficients [Rs] = 0.74 to 0.86). The three questionnaires had significant but weak correlations (Rs = -0.24 to -0.36) with some physiologic variables (VC, FEV1, and DL(CO)/VA) and mild to moderate correlations with exercise capacity and assessment of dyspnea, anxiety, and depression. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) score, anxiety by the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) accounted for 61% of the variance in the SGRQ and that the BDI and anxiety of the HAD accounted for 53 and 49% of the variance in the BPQ and the CRQ, respectively. Dyspnea and psychologic status impacted the HRQL in patients with COPD. Although no substantial differences between the SGRQ, the BPQ, and the CRQ were evident in the correlations with physiologic parameters and the influential factors, the BPQ was found to be less discriminatory than the SGRQ and the CRQ in evaluating HRQL cross-sectionally.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                11 May 2018
                : 13
                : 1537-1543
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
                [2 ]The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Luqian Zhou; Rongchang Chen, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yan Jiang Rd., Guangzhou 510120, China, Tel/fax +86 20 8306 2882, Email zhlx09@ ; chenrcstatekeylab@

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Guan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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