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      SOSPES: SPIRIVA® observational study measuring SGRQ score in routine medical practice in Central and Eastern Europe

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agent, tiotropium, is recommended as first-line maintenance therapy for moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to improve symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, and to reduce exacerbations. Few studies have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium in patients in routine clinical conditions. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium delivered via the HandiHaler® device on the health status of patients with COPD with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) disease classification 2–4 in six central and eastern European countries in a real-life clinical setting.

          Methods

          The study was an open-label, prospective, uncontrolled, and single-arm surveillance study with three clinic visits during a 6-month observation period (baseline, and months 3 and 6). Health status was measured using the disease-specific St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in SGRQ total score at the end of the 6-month observational period.

          Results

          Patients treated with tiotropium 18 μg once daily showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction (improvement) of 21.7 units in the SGRQ total score, regardless of smoking status or cardiac comorbidities at enrollment ( P < 0.0001). The analysis also showed that age, treatment compliance, and GOLD disease classification were significant factors that impact the health status of patients with COPD differently.

          Conclusion

          These results provide further support for the use of the tiotropium HandiHaler® as first-line maintenance treatment of patients with COPD with a clinician-assessed disease.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is established as a major risk factor, but emerging evidence suggests that other risk factors are important, especially in developing countries. An estimated 25-45% of patients with COPD have never smoked; the burden of non-smoking COPD is therefore much higher than previously believed. About 3 billion people, half the worldwide population, are exposed to smoke from biomass fuel compared with 1.01 billion people who smoke tobacco, which suggests that exposure to biomass smoke might be the biggest risk factor for COPD globally. We review the evidence for the association of COPD with biomass fuel, occupational exposure to dusts and gases, history of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic asthma, respiratory-tract infections during childhood, outdoor air pollution, and poor socioeconomic status.
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            Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UPLIFT): a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

            The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. However, there are few data for treatment in the early stages of the disease. We examined the effect of tiotropium on outcomes in a large subgroup of patients with moderate COPD. The Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 487 centres in 37 countries. 5993 patients aged 40 years or more with COPD were randomly assigned to receive 4 years of treatment with either once daily tiotropium (18 microg; n=2987) or matching placebo (n=3006), delivered by an inhalation device. Randomisation was by computer-generated blocks of four, with stratification according to study site. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we investigated the effects of tiotropium in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II disease. Primary endpoints were the yearly rates of decline in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and in postbronchodilator FEV(1), beginning on day 30 until completion of double-blind treatment. The analysis included all patients who had at least three measurements of pulmonary function. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00144339. 2739 participants (mean age 64 years [SD 9]) had GOLD stage II disease at randomisation (tiotropium, n=1384; control, n=1355), with a mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) of 1.63 L (SD 0.37; 59% of predicted value). 1218 patients in the tiotropium group and 1157 in the control group had three or more measurements of postbronchodilator pulmonary function after day 30 and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) was lower in the tiotropium group than in the control group (43 mL per year [SE 2] vs 49 mL per year [SE 2], p=0.024). For prebronchodilator pulmonary function, 1221 patients in the tiotropium group and 1158 in the control group had three or more measurements and were included in the analysis. The rate of decline of mean prebronchodilator FEV(1) did not differ between groups (35 mL per year [SE 2] vs 37 mL per year [SE 2]; p=0.38). Health status, measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, was better at all timepoints in the tiotropium group than in the control group (p
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              St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID.

              The SGRQ is a disease-specific measure of health status for use in COPD. A number of methods have been used for estimating its minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These include both expert and patient preference-based estimates. Anchor-based methods have also been used. The calculated MCID from those studies was consistently around 4 units, regardless of assessment method. By contrast, the MCID calculated using distribution-based methods varied across studies and permitted no consistent estimate. All measurements of clinical significance contain sample and measurement error. They also require value judgements, if not about the calculation of the MCID itself then about the anchors used to estimate it. Under these circumstances, greater weight should be placed upon the overall body of evidence for an MCID, rather than one single method. For that reason, estimates of MCID should be used as indicative values. Methods of analysing clinical trial results should reflect this, and use appropriate statistical tests for comparison with the MCID. Treatments for COPD that produced an improvement in SGRQ of the order of 4 units in clinical trials have subsequently found wide acceptance once in clinical practice, so it seems reasonable to expect any new treatment proposed for COPD to produce an advantage over placebo that is not significantly inferior to a 4-unit difference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2013
                2013
                09 October 2013
                : 8
                : 483-492
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia
                [2 ]Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Warsaw, Poland
                [3 ]Saint John Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
                [4 ]Municipal Medical Institution City Hospital, Barnaul, Russian Federation
                [5 ]SACCME, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia
                [6 ]Clinical Hospital Center, Osijek, Croatia
                [7 ]ADDS Sro, Jana Uhra, Brno, Czech Republic
                [8 ]Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Vienna, Austria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Matjaž Fležar, Respiratory Function Laboratory, University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, SI – 4204 Golnik, Slovenia, Tel +386 4 256 9392, Fax +386 4 256 9384, Email matjaz.flezar@ 123456klinika-golnik.si
                Article
                copd-8-483
                10.2147/COPD.S45640
                3806120
                24159258
                © 2013 Fležar et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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