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      Shikonin Production by Callus Culture of Onosma bulbotrichom as Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

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          The objective of this research was in-vitro germination and callus induction of Onosma bulbotrichum ( O. bulbotrichum) as a medicinal herb which belongs to Boraginaceae family. For germination, the seeds were cultured on growth regulator-free MS medium and for callus induction, seeds were sown on modified MS medium containing different concentrations of kinetin (kn)- Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kn- 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), respectively. The plates were maintained in the dark at growth chamber. After 7 days seed germination on hormone-free medium and after 10 days callus initiation on modified medium in the presence of hormones was occurred. The maximum pigmented callus (100%) was observed on modified MS medium with a combination of 0.2 mg.L -1 IAA + 2.10 mg.L -1 kn. Shikonin determination was performed by HPLC method. In addition, total hydroxynaphtoquinons as polyphenols in sum of callus and culture medium were measured by spectrophotometric method and revealed that total naphtoquinones content at IAA was more than 2, 4-D.

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          Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation.

          Different fractions of sea buckthorn fruits were investigated for antioxidant activity and its relationship to different phytonutrients. Capacity to scavenge radicals of the crude extract, like the phenolic and ascorbate extracts, decreased significantly with increased maturation. The changes were strongly correlated with the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extract increased significantly and corresponded to the increase in total carotenoids. The phenolic fractions made a major contribution to the total antioxidant capacity due to the high content of total phenolics. The lipophilic fractions were most effective if the comparison was based on the ratio between antioxidant capacity and content of antioxidants. The crude extract of fruits showed the highest inhibitory effect in both 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and ascorbate-iron induced lipid peroxidations. The aqueous and ascorbate-free extracts showed higher inhibition in the AMVN assay, but lower inhibition in ascorbate-iron induced peroxidation, than the lipophilic extract.
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            The Chemistry and Biology of Alkannin, Shikonin, and Related Naphthazarin Natural Products

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              Shikonin extracted from medicinal Chinese herbs exerts anti-inflammatory effect via proteasome inhibition.

              Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as efficiently as dexamethasone. Shikonin at 4 μM reduced the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNFα release in rat primary macrophage cultures, and blocked the translocation of p65-NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, associated with decreased proteasomal activity. Consistently, shikonin accumulated IκB-α, an inhibitor of NF-κB, and ubiquitinated proteins in rat primary macrophage cultures, demonstrating that the proteasome is a target of shikonin under inflammatory conditions. Shikonin also induced macrophage cell apoptosis and cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that proteasome inhibition by shikonin contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. The novel finding about macrophage proteasome as a target of shikonin suggests that this medicinal compound has great potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Iran J Pharm Res
                Iran J Pharm Res
                Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research : IJPR
                Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran )
                Spring 2018
                : 17
                : 2
                : 495-504
                [a ] Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
                [b ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
                [c ] Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: E-mail: rtahvilian@kums.ac.ir

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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