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      Disruption of Atrial Rhythmicity by the Air Pollutant 1,2-Naphthoquinone: Role of Beta-Adrenergic and Sensory Receptors

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          Abstract

          The combustion of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution (AP), which was linked to about 8.79 million global deaths in 2018, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular-related effects. Among these, particulate air pollution (PM2.5) stands out as a major risk factor for heart health, especially during vulnerable phases. Our prior study showed that premature exposure to 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), a chemical found in diesel exhaust particles (DEP), exacerbated asthma in adulthood. Moreover, increased concentration of 1,2-NQ contributed to airway inflammation triggered by PM2.5, employing neurogenic pathways related to the up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). However, the potential impact of early-life exposure to 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) on atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been investigated. This study aims to investigate how inhaling 1,2-NQ in early life affects the autonomic adrenergic system and the role played by TRPV1 in these heart disturbances. C57Bl/6 neonate male mice were exposed to 1,2-NQ (100 nM) or its vehicle at 6, 8, and 10 days of life. Early exposure to 1,2-NQ impairs adrenergic responses in the right atria without markedly affecting cholinergic responses. ECG analysis revealed altered rhythmicity in young mice, suggesting increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Furthermore, 1,2-NQ affected β1-adrenergic receptor agonist-mediated positive chronotropism, which was prevented by metoprolol, a β1 receptor blocker. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 blocker but not a TRPC5 blocker, reversed 1,2-NQ-induced cardiac changes. In conclusion, neonate mice exposure to AP 1,2-NQ results in an elevated risk of developing cardiac adrenergic dysfunction, potentially leading to atrial arrhythmia at a young age.

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          Worldwide epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: a Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study.

          The global burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We systematically reviewed population-based studies of AF published from 1980 to 2010 from the 21 Global Burden of Disease regions to estimate global/regional prevalence, incidence, and morbidity and mortality related to AF (DisModMR software). Of 377 potential studies identified, 184 met prespecified eligibility criteria. The estimated number of individuals with AF globally in 2010 was 33.5 million (20.9 million men [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 19.5-22.2 million] and 12.6 million women [95% UI, 12.0-13.7 million]). Burden associated with AF, measured as disability-adjusted life-years, increased by 18.8% (95% UI, 15.8-19.3) in men and 18.9% (95% UI, 15.8-23.5) in women from 1990 to 2010. In 1990, the estimated age-adjusted prevalence rates of AF (per 100 000 population) were 569.5 in men (95% UI, 532.8-612.7) and 359.9 in women (95% UI, 334.7-392.6); the estimated age-adjusted incidence rates were 60.7 per 100 000 person-years in men (95% UI, 49.2-78.5) and 43.8 in women (95% UI, 35.9-55.0). In 2010, the prevalence rates increased to 596.2 (95% UI, 558.4-636.7) in men and 373.1 (95% UI, 347.9-402.2) in women; the incidence rates increased to 77.5 (95% UI, 65.2-95.4) in men and 59.5 (95% UI, 49.9-74.9) in women. Mortality associated with AF was higher in women and increased by 2-fold (95% UI, 2.0-2.2) and 1.9-fold (95% UI, 1.8-2.0) in men and women, respectively, from 1990 to 2010. There was evidence of significant regional heterogeneity in AF estimations and availability of population-based data. These findings provide evidence of progressive increases in overall burden, incidence, prevalence, and AF-associated mortality between 1990 and 2010, with significant public health implications. Systematic, regional surveillance of AF is required to better direct prevention and treatment strategies.
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            Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

            Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention.
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              Role of quinones in toxicology.

              Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and cellular damage can occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can cause severe oxidative stress within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Formation of oxidatively damaged bases such as 8-oxodeoxyguanosine has been associated with aging and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, ROS can activate a number of signaling pathways, including protein kinase C and RAS. This review explores the varied cytotoxic effects of quinones using specific examples, including quinones produced from benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, and catecholamines. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone toxicity (i.e., alkylation vs oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology of the parent compound(s).
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                Journal
                BIOMHC
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI AG
                2218-273X
                January 2024
                December 31 2023
                : 14
                : 1
                : 57
                Article
                10.3390/biom14010057
                4a842f90-b310-4a73-aab4-03dbfe39cbc8
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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