Fluorescence imaging is currently attracting much interest as a method for intraoperative tumor detection, but most current tracers lack tumor specificity. Therefore, this technique can be further improved by tumor-specific detection. With tumor-targeted antibodies bound to a radioactive label, tumor-specific SPECT or PET is feasible in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to apply antibody-based tumor detection to intraoperative optical imaging, using preclinical in vivo mouse models. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 antibody trastuzumab were labeled with the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye IRDye 800CW. Tumor uptake of the fluorescent tracers and their (89)Zr-labeled radioactive counterparts for PET was determined in human xenograft-bearing athymic mice during 1 wk after tracer injection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution and pathologic examination. Intraoperative imaging of fluorescent VEGF- or HER2-positive tumor lesions was performed in subcutaneous tumors and in intraperitoneal dissemination tumor models. Tumor-to-background ratios, with fluorescent imaging, were 1.93 ± 0.40 for bevacizumab and 2.92 ± 0.29 for trastuzumab on day 6 after tracer injection. Real-time intraoperative imaging detected tumor lesions at even the submillimeter level in intraperitoneal dissemination tumor models. These results were supported by standard histology, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence microscopy analyses. NIR fluorescence-labeled antibodies targeting VEGF or HER2 can be used for highly specific and sensitive detection of tumor lesions in vivo. These preclinical findings encourage future clinical studies with NIR fluorescence-labeled tumor-specific antibodies for intraoperative-guided surgery in cancer patients.