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      Amelioration of Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidaemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Probiotic and Vitamin C

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          Abstract

          Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that hyperglycaemia is responsible for the oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of probiotic and vitamin C (Vit-C) treatments on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Six groups of the animals received the following treatment regimens for four weeks: (1) Normal saline, per os; (2) alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.); (3) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + insulin (4 U/kg, subcutaneously); (4) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10 6 CFU/100 mL per os); (5) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, i.m.); (6) alloxan (150 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10 6 CFU/100 mL per os) + Vit-C (100 mg/kg, intramuscularly). Probiotic + Vit-C decreased ( p < 0.05) blood glucose concentration in diabetic treated group, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. Probiotic + Vit-C reduced malondialdehyde concentration, in the serum, brain and kidneys, respectively, but increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Probiotic and Vit-C may be more effective than Vit-C alone, in ameliorating hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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          A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase.

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            Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

            Endothelial dysfunction occurs in diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus but may also precede development of diabetes. To determine whether elevated plasma levels of biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction (E-selectin; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) predict development of type 2 diabetes in initially nondiabetic women. Prospective, nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing US study initiated in 1976. Of 121 700 women initially enrolled, 32 826 provided blood samples in 1989-1990; of those free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline, 737 developed incident diabetes by 2000. Controls (n = 785) were selected according to matched age, fasting status, and race. Risk of confirmed clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes by baseline levels of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Baseline median levels of the biomarkers were significantly higher among cases than among controls (E-selectin, 61.2 vs 45.4 ng/mL; ICAM-1, 264.9 vs 247.0 ng/mL; VCAM-1, 545.4 vs 526.0 ng/mL [all P values < or =.004]). Elevated E-selectin and ICAM-1 levels predicted incident diabetes in logistic regression models conditioned on matching criteria and adjusted for body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, smoking, diet score, alcohol intake, activity index, and postmenopausal hormone use. The adjusted relative risks for incident diabetes in the top quintile vs the bottom quintiles were 5.43 for E-selectin (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.47-8.50), 3.56 for ICAM-1 (95% CI, 2.28-5.58), and 1.12 for VCAM-1 (95% CI, 0.76-1.66). Adjustment for waist circumference instead of BMI or further adjustment for baseline levels of C-reactive protein, fasting insulin, and hemoglobin A(1c) or exclusion of cases diagnosed during the first 4 years of follow-up did not alter these associations. Endothelial dysfunction predicts type 2 diabetes in women independent of other known risk factors, including obesity and subclinical inflammation.
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              Antidiabetic effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in high fructose fed rats.

              We investigated the effect of low-fat (2.5%) dahi containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on progression of high fructose-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by feeding 21% fructose in water. The body weight, food and water intakes, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin, liver glycogen content, and blood lipid profile were recorded. The oxidative status in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced glutathione contents in liver and pancreatic tissues were also measured. Values for blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose intolerance, plasma insulin, liver glycogen, plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood free fatty acids were increased significantly after 8 wk of high fructose feeding; however, the dahi-supplemented diet restricted the elevation of these parameters in comparison with the high fructose-fed control group. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased slightly and was retained in the dahi-fed group. The dahi-fed group also exhibited lower values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and higher values of reduced glutathione in liver and pancreatic tissues compared with the high fructose-fed control group. The probiotic dahi-supplemented diet significantly delayed the onset of glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in high fructose-induced diabetic rats, indicating a lower risk of diabetes and its complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                05 May 2016
                May 2016
                : 8
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, c/o P.O. Box 216 Samaru, 810006 Zaria, Nigeria; ayojo94@ 123456yahoo.com (J.O.A.); alkalivet@ 123456gmail.com (A.K.)
                [2 ]Biochemistry Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, 930103 Vom, Nigeria; oladiposola@ 123456ymail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: aluwong_tagang@ 123456yahoo.co.UK ; Tel.: +23-480-2466-0804
                Article
                nutrients-08-00151
                10.3390/nu8050151
                4882655
                27164129
                4a9eab5b-0171-40de-be83-6c1eed69100e
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                dyslipidaemia,hyperglycaemia,oxidative stress,type 1 diabetes,wistar rats
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, type 1 diabetes, wistar rats

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