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      Is Open Access

      The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

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      Ecology and Evolution

      John Wiley and Sons Inc.

      data sharing, global biodiversity modeling, global change, habitat destruction, land use

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems ( www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 467

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                l.hudson@nhm.ac.uk
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                16 December 2016
                January 2017
                : 7
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2017.7.issue-1 )
                : 145-188
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Life SciencesNatural History Museum LondonUK
                [ 2 ]United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre CambridgeUK
                [ 3 ] Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment Centre for Biodiversity and Environment ResearchUniversity College London LondonUK
                [ 4 ] Department of Life SciencesImperial College London AscotUK
                [ 5 ]Imperial College London South Kensington LondonUK
                [ 6 ] Department of ZoologyCambridge University CambridgeUK
                [ 7 ] Frankfurt Zoological SocietyAfrica Regional Office ArushaTanzania
                [ 8 ] Science and Solutions for a Changing Planet DTP and the Department of Life SciencesImperial College London South Kensington LondonUK
                [ 9 ] Centre d’étude de la forêt.Université Laval Laval QCCanada
                [ 10 ] School of Life SciencesUniversity of Sussex BrightonUK
                [ 11 ] School of Biological and Chemical SciencesQueen Mary University of London LondonUK
                [ 12 ] School of Biological and Ecological SciencesUniversity of Stirling StirlingUK
                [ 13 ] School of Biological SciencesRoyal Holloway University of London Egham, SurreyUK
                [ 14 ] Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of Sheffield Western Bank SheffieldUK
                [ 15 ] School of Environment Natural Resources and GeographyBangor University Bangor GwyneddUK
                [ 16 ]University College London LondonUK
                [ 17 ] School of Biological SciencesQueen's University Belfast BelfastUK
                [ 18 ] Institute of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Aberdeen AberdeenUK
                [ 19 ] Evolutionary Ecology GroupUniversity of Antwerp AntwerpBelgium
                [ 20 ] Nees Institute for Plant BiodiversityUniversity of Bonn BonnGermany
                [ 21 ] Wildlife and Range Management Department Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources (FRNR) College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (CANR)Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) KumasiGhana
                [ 22 ]SAVE THE FROGS! Ghana Adum‐KumasiGhana
                [ 23 ] Escuela de BiologíaUniversidad de Costa Rica San JoséCosta Rica
                [ 24 ] Laboratorio Ecotono‐CRUBUniversidad Nacional del Comahue and INIBIOMA Río NegroArgentina
                [ 25 ] Departamento de Botánica Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de Valencia Burjassot, ValenciaSpain
                [ 26 ] Marine Laboratory Silliman University‐Angelo King Center for Research and Environmental ManagementSilliman University Dumaguete CityPhilippines
                [ 27 ] Department of Soil and Water ConservationCSIC‐Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura MurciaSpain
                [ 28 ] INRAUR 0980 SAD‐Paysage Rennes CedexFrance
                [ 29 ] INRAUMR 1201 DYNAFOR Castanet Tolosan CedexFrance
                [ 30 ]HUTAN – Kinabatangan Orang‐utan Conservation Programme Kota KinabaluMalaysia
                [ 31 ]Borneo Futures Kota KinabaluMalaysia
                [ 32 ]CSIRO Land & Water Flagship Winnellie NTAustralia
                [ 33 ] Museo de Zoología Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México México D.F.Mexico
                [ 34 ] Colección de TejidosInstituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt Valle del CaucaColombia
                [ 35 ] Biology DepartmentUniversidad del Valle CaliColombia
                [ 36 ] Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y SustentabilidadUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México MoreliaMexico
                [ 37 ] College of Science, Engineering & HealthRMIT University Melbourne Vic.Australia
                [ 38 ] UCL Department of GeographyUniversity College London LondonUK
                [ 39 ] Biodiversity Unit Institute of BioscienceUniversiti Putra Malaysia SerdangMalaysia
                [ 40 ] Faculty of ForestryUniversiti Putra Malaysia SerdangMalaysia
                [ 41 ] Departamento de Biodiversidad y GenéticaInstituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable MontevideoUruguay
                [ 42 ] Forest & Nature Lab Department of Forest and Water ManagementGhent University GontrodeBelgium
                [ 43 ] Terrestrial Ecology Unit Department of BiologyGhent University GhentBelgium
                [ 44 ] UFR Science de la NatureUniversité Naangui Abrogoua AbidjanIvory Coast
                [ 45 ]Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire AbidjanIvory Coast
                [ 46 ]MTA Centre for Ecological Research VácrátótHungary
                [ 47 ]University of Washington Tacoma Tacoma WAUSA
                [ 48 ]Northern Hardwoods Research Institute Edmundston NBCanada
                [ 49 ] Lancaster Environment CentreLancaster University LancasterUK
                [ 50 ]MCT/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi BelémBrazil
                [ 51 ] AgResearch LimitedInvermay Agricultural Centre Puddle Alley, MosgielNew Zealand
                [ 52 ] Centre for Functional Ecology Department of Life SciencesUniversity of Coimbra CoimbraPortugal
                [ 53 ]COT (Tuscan Ornithological Society) LivornoItaly
                [ 54 ]Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Balboa Ancon Panama CityRepublic of Panama
                [ 55 ] Agroecology Department of Crop SciencesGeorg‐August University GöttingenGermany
                [ 56 ] Biosciences School of Science & TechnologyNottingham Trent University Clifton, NottinghamUK
                [ 57 ]University of Birmingham Edgbaston, BirminghamUK
                [ 58 ] Section of Conservation Biology Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Basel BaselSwitzerland
                [ 59 ] Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Alberta Edmonton ABCanada
                [ 60 ] CIBIO/InBio Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos GenéticosUniversidade do Porto VairãoPortugal
                [ 61 ] Faculty of Sustainable AgricultureUniversiti Malaysia Sabah SandakanMalaysia
                [ 62 ] The Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesThe Swedish Biodiversity Centre UppsalaSweden
                [ 63 ] Institute for Tropical Biology and ConservationUniversiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS Kota KinabaluMalaysia
                [ 64 ] School of GeosciencesUniversity of Edinburgh EdinburghUK
                [ 65 ] Department of Zoology & Environmental ScienceGurukula Kangri University HaridwarIndia
                [ 66 ] Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE) School of Anthropology and ConservationUniversity of Kent CanterburyUK
                [ 67 ]Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development GeorgetownGuyana
                [ 68 ] Department of Ecology‐Animal Ecology Faculty of BiologyPhilipps‐Universität Marburg MarburgGermany
                [ 69 ] Compliance Services InternationalPentlands Science Park Penicuik, EdinburghUK
                [ 70 ] Centre for Agri‐Environmental Research School of Agriculture, Policy and DevelopmentUniversity of Reading ReadingUK
                [ 71 ]School for the Training of Wildlife Specialists Garoua GarouaCameroon
                [ 72 ] Department of Forestry Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Dschang DschangCameroon
                [ 73 ]Mater Natura – Instituto de Estudos Ambientais CuritibaBrazil
                [ 74 ]CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS‐KNAW) UtrechtThe Netherlands
                [ 75 ]Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK‐F) Frankfurt am MainGermany
                [ 76 ] Institute for Ecology, Evolution & DiversityGoethe University Frankfurt Biologicum, Frankfurt am MainGermany
                [ 77 ] School of Land and FoodUniversity of Tasmania Sandy Bay Tas.Australia
                [ 78 ] Departamento de Ciências AgráriascE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores Angra do Heroísmo, AçoresPortugal
                [ 79 ]Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia ManausBrazil
                [ 80 ] Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology BranchCarleton University Ottawa ONCanada
                [ 81 ] Unité Mixte de Recherche Contrôle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et EmergentesCentre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD) MontpellierFrance
                [ 82 ] Unité Mixte de Recherche 1309 Contrôle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et EmergentesInstitut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) MontpellierFrance
                [ 83 ] Departamento de Zoologia Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São Paulo São PauloBrazil
                [ 84 ] Human Environment Systems CenterBoise State University Boise IDUSA
                [ 85 ] School of Science and the EnvironmentManchester Metropolitan University ManchesterUK
                [ 86 ]Universidade de Évora – ICAAM ÉvoraPortugal
                [ 87 ] Natural Parks Technical OfficeDiputació de Barcelona BarcelonaSpain
                [ 88 ]Natural History Museum of Barcelona Barcelona, CataloniaSpain
                [ 89 ] Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesSouthern Swedish Forest Research Centre AlnarpSweden
                [ 90 ] Department of EntomologyPurdue University West Lafayette INUSA
                [ 91 ] Department of Natural Resource SciencesMcGill University Ste‐Ann‐de‐Bellevue QCCanada
                [ 92 ]Alterra, part of Wageningen University and Research RB WageningenThe Netherlands
                [ 93 ] Departamento de Ciências da Vida Centro de Ecologia FuncionalUniversidade de Coimbra CoimbraPortugal
                [ 94 ] Departamento de Biologia Vegetal Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Estadual de Campinas CampinasBrazil
                [ 95 ] Department of Botany School of Natural SciencesTrinity College Dublin Dublin 2Ireland
                [ 96 ] Institute for Environmental SciencesUniversity Koblenz‐Landau LandauGermany
                [ 97 ] Departamento de Zoologia Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São Paulo São PauloBrazil
                [ 98 ] Departamento de Biología Grupo de investigación en Biología Ecología y Manejo de Hormigas Sección de EntomologíaUniversidad del Valle CaliColombia
                [ 99 ] Department of BiologyFederal University of Santa Maria, CCNE Santa MariaBrazil
                [ 100 ] Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke University Durham NCUSA
                [ 101 ] Department of Ecology and Animal Biology Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Vigo VigoSpain
                [ 102 ] Department of EntomologyUniversity of Illinois Urbana ILUSA
                [ 103 ] Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation BiologyUniversity of Illinois Urbana ILUSA
                [ 104 ]Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo São PauloBrazil
                [ 105 ] Departamento de Biología (Botánica) Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autonoma de Madrid MadridSpain
                [ 106 ] Finnish Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of Helsinki HelsinkiFinland
                [ 107 ] Parks and CountrysideBracknell Forest Council BracknellUK
                [ 108 ] Soil Biodiversity Group Life Sciences DepartmentNatural History Museum LondonUK
                [ 109 ]Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo São PauloBrazil
                [ 110 ] Laboratório de Ecologia Aplicada à ConservaçãoUniversidade Estadual de Santa Cruz IlhéusBrazil
                [ 111 ] Instituto de Biotecnologia y Ecologia Aplicada (INBIOTECA)Universidad Veracruzana XalapaMexico
                [ 112 ] Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center TurrialbaCosta Rica
                [ 113 ] Department of Quantitative Methods and Information Systems Faculty of AgronomyUniversity of Buenos Aires Buenos AiresArgentina
                [ 114 ]Applied Ecological Services, Inc. Prior Lake MNUSA
                [ 115 ] Normandie Univ EA 1293 ECODIV‐Rouen SFR SCALEUFR Sciences et Techniques Mont Saint Aignan CedexFrance
                [ 116 ]MC‐Consult SorøDenmark
                [ 117 ] Institute of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Aberdeen AberdeenUK
                [ 118 ] Department of Biology CESAMUniversidade de Aveiro AveiroPortugal
                [ 119 ] Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità degli Studi di Milano MilanoItaly
                [ 120 ] Sustainability Research InstituteUniversity of East London LondonUK
                [ 121 ] Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions School of Plant BiologyUniversity of Western Australia Nedlands WAAustralia
                [ 122 ] School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch University Murdoch WAAustralia
                [ 123 ] Grupo Ecología de Artrópodos y Manejo de PlagasEl Colegio de la Frontera Sur TapachulaMexico
                [ 124 ]CSIRO Land and Water Flagship Canberra ACTAustralia
                [ 125 ] Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità di Napoli Federico II NapoliItaly
                [ 126 ] Wildlife Conservation Research Unit Department of ZoologyUniversity of Oxford Recanati‐Kaplan Centre TubneyUK
                [ 127 ] Programa de Pós‐Graduação em EcologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa Catarina FlorianópolisBrazil
                [ 128 ] Sustainability Research Institute School of Earth and EnvironmentUniversity of Leeds LeedsUK
                [ 129 ]British Trust for Ornithology Stirling, UK
                [ 130 ]Thünen Institute of Biodiversity BraunschweigGermany
                [ 131 ] Scarab Research Group Department of Zoology & EntomologyUniversity of Pretoria HatfieldSouth Africa
                [ 132 ]Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust TrinityJersey
                [ 133 ]Center for International Forestry Research BogorIndonesia
                [ 134 ]Kwata NGO CayenneFrench Guiana
                [ 135 ] CIRADUMR System MontpellierFrance
                [ 136 ] ICRAFRegional Office for Latin America LimaPeru
                [ 137 ] UPS INP Laboratoire Écologie Fonctionnelle et EnvironnementUniversité de Toulouse ToulouseFrance
                [ 138 ] CNRS – UMR 5245Ecolab ToulouseFrance
                [ 139 ] CNRS – UMR 8172Écologie des Forêts de Guyane Kourou cedexFrance
                [ 140 ]CNRS – UMR 7206 (retired) CNRS/MNHN ParisFrance
                [ 141 ] Department of Landscape Ecology Institute of Natural Resource ConservationKiel University KielGermany
                [ 142 ] Department of Biology, Nature ConservationUniversity Marburg MarburgGermany
                [ 143 ] Institute of Integrative BiologyETH Zürich ZürichSwitzerland
                [ 144 ] Post Graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and ConservationNational Centre for Biological Sciences BangaloreIndia
                [ 145 ] Wildlife Conservation Society (India Program)Centre for Wildlife Studies BangaloreIndia
                [ 146 ]Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias – INIA – CRI – Kampenaike Punta ArenasChile
                [ 147 ] Programa de BiologíaUniversidad del Atlántico BarranquillaColombia
                [ 148 ] Applied EntomologyETH Zürich ZürichSwitzerland
                [ 149 ] Unit for Environmental Sciences and ManagementNorth‐West University PotchefstroomSouth Africa
                [ 150 ] Department of Ecosystem Modelling Büsgen‐InstituteGeorg‐August‐University of Göttingen GöttingenGermany
                [ 151 ] INRAUMR 1213 Herbivores Saint‐Genès ChampanelleFrance
                [ 152 ] Institute of ZoologyZoological Society of London, Regents Park LondonUK
                [ 153 ] Department of Ecology and Environmental ScienceUmeå University UmeåSweden
                [ 154 ] Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental StudiesSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences UmeaSweden
                [ 155 ] Centre for Biological SciencesUniversity of Southampton SouthamptonUK
                [ 156 ] MTA‐ELTE‐MTM Ecology Research Group Hungarian Academy of Sciences c/o Biological InstituteEötvös Lóránd University BudapestHungary
                [ 157 ]Hungarian Natural History Museum BudapestHungary
                [ 158 ] Institute for Environmental SciencesUniversity of Koblenz‐Landau LandauGermany
                [ 159 ] Department of Conservation Ecology and EntomologyStellenbosch University MatielandSouth Africa
                [ 160 ] Centre for Invasion BiologyStellenbosch University MatielandSouth Africa
                [ 161 ] CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de Lisboa LisboaPortugal
                [ 162 ] Associação Monte PicoMonte Café Mé ZóchiSão Tomé and Príncipe
                [ 163 ] Kew GardensWakehurst Ardingly, Haywards Heath, SussexUK
                [ 164 ] Wild Asia Upper PenthouseWisma RKT Kuala LumpurMalaysia
                [ 165 ] Conservation Ecology Faculty of BiologyPhilipps‐Universität Marburg MarburgGermany
                [ 166 ] Institute of EntomologyBiology Centre of Academy of Sciences Czech Republic České BudějoviceCzech Republic
                [ 167 ] Institute for Tropical Biology and ConservationUniversiti Malaysia Sabah Kota KinabaluMalaysia
                [ 168 ] Dipartimento di Scienze VeterinarieUniversità di Pisa PisaItaly
                [ 169 ]Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences AlnarpSweden
                [ 170 ] Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Queensland St Lucia QldAustralia
                [ 171 ]Queensland Herbarium (DSITIA) Toowong QldAustralia
                [ 172 ] School of SustainabilityArizona State University Tempe AZUSA
                [ 173 ] Department of BiologyTrent University Peterborough ONCanada
                [ 174 ] Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine (LECA)Université Grenoble Alpes GrenobleFrance
                [ 175 ]Institute of Biology Bucharest of Romanian Academy BucharestRomania
                [ 176 ] Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPECidade Universitaria RecifeBrazil
                [ 177 ]Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Yenimahalle‐AnkaraTurkey
                [ 178 ] School of Forest Resources and Environmental ScienceMichigan Technological University Houghton MIUSA
                [ 179 ] Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology BiocenterUniversity of Würzburg WürzburgGermany
                [ 180 ] Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of California Davis CAUSA
                [ 181 ] Department of Soil and Crop SciencesColorado State University Fort Collins COUSA
                [ 182 ]IRD‐UMR 208 PALOC IRD/MNHN ParisFrance
                [ 183 ] Department of Community Ecology UFZHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research HalleGermany
                [ 184 ] Department of Natural Resource SciencesThompson Rivers University Kamloops BCCanada
                [ 185 ] Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)University of Amsterdam GE AmsterdamThe Netherlands
                [ 186 ] PanEco/Yayasan Ekosistem LestariSumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme MedanIndonesia
                [ 187 ] Programa de Pós Graduação em EcologiaUniversidade de Brasília Brasília, Distrito FederalBrazil
                [ 188 ] IDEA Consultants Inc.Okinawa Branch Office NahaJapan
                [ 189 ] Biocentre GrindelUniversity of Hamburg HamburgGermany
                [ 190 ] Departamento de Zoología Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y OceanográficasUniversidad de Concepción ConcepciónChile
                [ 191 ] Departamento de Planificación Territorial Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales Centro EULA‐ChileUniversidad de Concepción ConcepciónChile
                [ 192 ] Hopkirk InstituteMassey University Palmerston NorthNew Zealand
                [ 193 ]Seed Consulting Services Adelaide SAAustralia
                [ 194 ] Environmental Futures Research InstituteGriffith University Brisbane QldAustralia
                [ 195 ] Barbara Hardy InstituteUniversity of South Australia Mawson Lakes SAAustralia
                [ 196 ] Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Bioresources of Saline SoilsYancheng Teachers University YanchengChina
                [ 197 ] Département des sciences biologiquesCentre d’études de la forêt Université du Québec à Montréal Succursale Centre‐ville Montréal QCCanada
                [ 198 ] AgResearchRuakura Research Centre HamiltonNew Zealand
                [ 199 ] Ecologia Aplicada/Applied EcologyUniversidade Sagrado Coração (USC) BauruBrazil
                [ 200 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of Toronto Toronto ONCanada
                [ 201 ] DIFARUniversity of Genova GenovaItaly
                [ 202 ]Tel Aviv University Tel AvivIsrael
                [ 203 ]World Wildlife Fund, Inc. (WWF) Guianas ParamariboSuriname
                [ 204 ] Rubenstein School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of Vermont Burlington VTUSA
                [ 205 ]Astron Environmental Services East Perth WAAustralia
                [ 206 ] Department of Environment and AgricultureCurtin University Perth WAAustralia
                [ 207 ] Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations (CBGP) INRA IRD CIRADSUPAGRO Montferrier‐sur‐Lez cedexFrance
                [ 208 ] Department of ZoologyUniversity of Oxford OxfordUK
                [ 209 ] Department of Biological SciencesMount Holyoke College South Hadley MAUSA
                [ 210 ]China International Engineering Consulting Corporation Haidian District BeijingChina
                [ 211 ]CREAF Cerdanyola del Vallès, CataloniaSpain
                [ 212 ] Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales Renovables Facultad de Ciencias AgronómicasUniversidad de Chile La PintanaChile
                [ 213 ] Grupos de FaunaInstituto amazónico de investigaciones científicas Sinchi. BogotáColombia
                [ 214 ] Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology of Plants (BEE) Biocentre Klein Flottbek and Botanical GardenUniversity of Hamburg HamburgGermany
                [ 215 ] School of Biological ScienceUniversity of Plymouth PlymouthUK
                [ 216 ] Friday Harbor WAUSA
                [ 217 ]International University of Malaya‐Wales, Jalan Tun Ismail Kuala LumpurMalaysia
                [ 218 ] Department of Wildlife ManagementSokoine University of Agriculture MorogoroTanzania
                [ 219 ]The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation Portland ORUSA
                [ 220 ] Animal & Environment Research Group Department of Life SciencesAnglia Ruskin University CambridgeUK
                [ 221 ]Walter Sisulu University Mthatha, TranskeiSouth Africa
                [ 222 ] Centre for African Conservation EcologyNelson Mandela Metropolitan University Port ElizabethSouth Africa
                [ 223 ] College of Natural SciencesBangor University Bangor, GwyneddUK
                [ 224 ] Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest ServiceLaurentian Forestry Centre Québec QCCanada
                [ 225 ] Department of Arctic and Marine BiologyUniversity of Tromsø TromsøNorway
                [ 226 ]Panthera New York NYUSA
                [ 227 ]Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana Puerto OrdazVenezuela
                [ 228 ] Richard Gilder Graduate SchoolAmerican Museum of Natural History New York NY USA
                [ 229 ]Agroscope ZürichSwitzerland
                [ 230 ]Corporación Sentido Natural BogotáColombia
                [ 231 ] Earth and Atmospheric Sciences DepartmentUniversity of Alberta Edmonton ABCanada
                [ 232 ]State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe (SMNK) Biosciences KarlsruheGermany
                [ 233 ]Museum für Naturkunde – Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science BerlinGermany
                [ 234 ]University of Technology Sydney Sydney NSWAustralia
                [ 235 ]University of New Brunswick Fredericton NBCanada
                [ 236 ] Department of Ecology Faculty of Veterinary ScienceSZIE University BudapestHungary
                [ 237 ] Department of EcologyUniversity of Debrecen DebrecenHungary
                [ 238 ] Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant SciencesStockholm University StockholmSweden
                [ 239 ]Instituto de Investigaciones y Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt Bogotá, Colombia
                [ 240 ] Institute of Natural and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Hyogo HyogoJapan
                [ 241 ] Hiroshima UniversityLeading‐program Higashihiroshima KagamiyamaJapan
                [ 242 ] Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y SustentabilidadUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México Morelia México C.P.Mexico
                [ 243 ] Department of Animal EcologyJustus‐Liebig‐University GiessenGermany
                [ 244 ] Escuela de BiologiaUniversidad de Costa Rica San PedroCosta Rica
                [ 245 ]Biodiversity and Environmental Sustainability RohiniIndia
                [ 246 ] Department of Environmental StudiesShivaji College (University of Delhi) New DelhiIndia
                [ 247 ] Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences UppsalaSweden
                [ 248 ] School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains Malaysia MindenMalaysia
                [ 249 ]Yukon Department of Environment Whitehorse YTCanada
                [ 250 ]Nature Conservation Foundation Mysore, India
                [ 251 ] Cologne Biocenter Zoological InstituteUniversity of Cologne KölnGermany
                [ 252 ] Department of Environmental & Natural Resources ManagementUniversity of Patras AgrinioGreece
                [ 253 ] Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) & College of Marine and Environmental Sciences James Cook University Cairns QldAustralia
                [ 254 ] School of Science and TechnologyPacific Adventist University Port MoresbyPapua New Guinea
                [ 255 ] Unit for Environmental Sciences and ManagementNorth‐West University PotchefstroomSouth Africa
                [ 256 ] Department of Systematic and Evolutionary BotanyUniversity of Zürich ZürichSwitzerland
                [ 257 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Geography and PlanningUniversity of Toronto Toronto ONCanada
                [ 258 ]The Wilderness & Wildlife Conservation Trust ColomboSri Lanka
                [ 259 ] School of Biological SciencesPlymouth University PlymouthUK
                [ 260 ] Institute of Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of Bern BernSwitzerland
                [ 261 ] Section Environnement Développement durable et Territoire Division Environnement et TerritoireBundesamt für Statistik NeuchâtelSwitzerland
                [ 262 ] School of Forest SciencesUniversity of Eastern Finland JoensuuFinland
                [ 263 ] Institute of Ecology, FB2University of Bremen BremenGermany
                [ 264 ]Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly KorhogoIvory Coast
                [ 265 ]Station d'Ecologie de Lamto N'DouciIvory Coast
                [ 266 ] Theoretical Evolutionary Ecology Group Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology BiocenterUniversity of Würzburg WürzburgGermany
                [ 267 ] Wildlife Conservation Society‐IndiaNational Centre for Biological Sciences BangaloreIndia
                [ 268 ]Nature Science Initiative DehradunIndia
                [ 269 ] Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California Berkeley CAUSA
                [ 270 ] School of BioSciencesUniversity of Melbourne Melbourne Vic.Australia
                [ 271 ] School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFLBern University of Applied Sciences ZollikofenSwitzerland
                [ 272 ] Swiss Federal Institute for ForestSnow and Landscape Research WSL BirmensdorfSwitzerland
                [ 273 ]Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria EEA Bariloche BarilocheArgentina
                [ 274 ] Department of BiologyPennsylvania State University University Park PAUSA
                [ 275 ] National AviaryAllegheny Commons West Pittsburgh PAUSA
                [ 276 ] Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences College of Marine and Environmental ScienceJames Cook University Cairns QldAustralia
                [ 277 ]Université Pierre‐et‐Marie‐Curie ParisFrance
                [ 278 ]Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences ParisFrance
                [ 279 ] INRAUR 406 Abeilles et Environnement AvignonFrance
                [ 280 ] Department of BiologySan Francisco State University San Francisco CAUSA
                [ 281 ] Laboratoire de diagnostic en phytoprotectionMinistère de l'agriculture, des pêcheries et de l'alimentation du Québec Ville de Québec QCCanada
                [ 282 ] Research Unit Terrestrial EcologyGhent University GhentBelgium
                [ 283 ] Laboratorio de Recursos Agroforestales Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC)Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) UshuaiaArgentina
                [ 284 ] School of BiosciencesUniversity of Melbourne Parkville Vic.Australia
                [ 285 ]Purchase College (State University of New York) Purchase NYUSA
                [ 286 ] Institute of Applied EcologyChinese Academy of Sciences ShenyangChina
                [ 287 ] School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Canterbury ChristchurchNew Zealand
                [ 288 ]The James Hutton Institute AberdeenUK
                [ 289 ] College of Resources and Environmental SciencesChina Agricultural University BeijingChina
                [ 290 ]Carste Ciência e Meio Ambiente Floresta, Belo HorizonteBrazil
                [ 291 ] TEHO Laboratory Institiute of BiologyUniversity of Antioquia MedellínColombia
                [ 292 ] International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)Amman Office AmmanJordan
                [ 293 ] Animal and Rangeland Sciences DepartmentOregon State University Corvallis ORUSA
                [ 294 ] Department of Agroecology Flakkebjerg Research CentreAarhus University SlagelseDenmark
                [ 295 ] Department of Agroforestry Technology and Science and Genetics School of Advanced Agricultural EngineeringCastilla La Mancha University AlbaceteSpain
                [ 296 ] Unidad Académica de Turismo Coordinación de Investigación y PosgradoUniversidad Autónoma de Nayarit TepicMexico
                [ 297 ] Centro de Investigaciones TropicalesUniversidad Veracruzana XalapaMexico
                [ 298 ] Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceKobe University KobeJapan
                [ 299 ] Department of EcologyUniversity of Debrecen DebrecenHungary
                [ 300 ] Center for Conservation InnovationSan Jose Tagaytay City Philippines
                [ 301 ] Biology DepartmentDe La Salle University ManilaPhilippines
                [ 302 ]The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited AucklandNew Zealand
                [ 303 ]National Museums of Kenya NairobiKenya
                [ 304 ] Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate Natural History Museum of DenmarkUniversity of Copenhagen Copenhagen ØDenmark
                [ 305 ] Red de Biología y Conservación de VertebradosInstituto de Ecología A.C. XalapaMexico
                [ 306 ] Department of GeographyUniversity of Bergen BergenNorway
                [ 307 ] Department of GeographyUniversity of Wisconsin‐Madison Madison WIUSA
                [ 308 ] School of BiologyUniversity of Leeds Leeds West YorkshireUK
                [ 309 ]Marshall Agroecology Ltd Barton WinscombeUK
                [ 310 ]Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria BogotáColombia
                [ 311 ]Basque Centre for Climate Change – BC3 BilbaoSpain
                [ 312 ] School of Biological SciencesThe University of Queensland Brisbane QldAustralia
                [ 313 ] Associate of Arts ProgramUniversity of Delaware – Wilmington Wilmington DEUSA
                [ 314 ] Department of Entomology and Wildlife EcologyUniversity of Delaware Newark DEUSA
                [ 315 ] Department of EntomologyUniversity of California Riverside CAUSA
                [ 316 ] Centre for Mined Land RehabilitationThe University of Queensland Brisbane QldAustralia
                [ 317 ] Departamento de Biogeografía y Cambio GlobalMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) MadridSpain
                [ 318 ] Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of Connecticut Storrs CTUSA
                [ 319 ] Museo de Historia Natural “Vera Alleman Haeghebaert”Universidad Ricardo Palma Lima 33Peru
                [ 320 ] Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad (CIBIO)Universidad de Alicante AlicanteSpain
                [ 321 ] Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station RiddarhyttanSweden
                [ 322 ]Rainforest Alliance New York NYUSA
                [ 323 ] Department of Natural ResourcesCornell University Ithaca NYUSA
                [ 324 ] Department of Natural Resources & Environmental SciencesUniversity of Illinois Urbana ILUSA
                [ 325 ]Universidad Industrial de Santander BucaramangaColombia
                [ 326 ] School of Plant BiologyUniversity of Western Australia Crawley WAAustralia
                [ 327 ] Lab. EcotonoINIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional del Comahue‐CONICET) BarilocheArgentina
                [ 328 ] Botany DepartmentNational Museums of Kenya NairobiKenya
                [ 329 ] Department of Wildlife ManagementUniversity of Eldoret EldoretKenya
                [ 330 ] Department of Biology and Ecology Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Novi Sad Novi SadSerbia
                [ 331 ] School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains Malaysia PenangMalaysia
                [ 332 ] El Colegio de la Frontera SurEcología Evolutiva y Conservación San Cristóbal de las CasasMexico
                [ 333 ]Nature Kenya NairobiKenya
                [ 334 ]WWF Washington DCUSA
                [ 335 ]Independent Research Scholar New DelhiIndia
                [ 336 ] Avian Diversity and Bioacoustic Lab Department of ZoologyGurukula Kangri University HaridwarIndia
                [ 337 ] Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya University NagoyaJapan
                [ 338 ] Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of Sciences MenglunChina
                [ 339 ] Environmental Futures Research Institute, and Griffith School of EnvironmentGriffith University Nathan Brisbane QldAustralia
                [ 340 ] College of Bioresource ScienceNihon University FujisawaJapan
                [ 341 ]Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute TsukubaJapan
                [ 342 ] Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Abejas (Departamento de Biología)Universidad Nacional de Colombia BogotáColombia
                [ 343 ] Laboratorio de Información GeográficaEl Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR) San Cristóbal de las CasasMexico
                [ 344 ]CMRPZ – I.E. Plaza Bonita San Andrés de Sotavento (Córdoba)Colombia
                [ 345 ]BirdLife International – Africa Partnership Secretariat NairobiKenya
                [ 346 ] Ornithology SectionNational Museums of Kenya NairobiKenya
                [ 347 ] Department of ZoologyUniversity of British Columbia Vancouver BCCanada
                [ 348 ] Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE Muséum national d'Histoire naturelleSorbonne Universités ParisFrance
                [ 349 ] Department of Biology/BiodiversityLund University LundSweden
                [ 350 ] Department of BiosciencesUniversity of Helsinki HelsinkiFinland
                [ 351 ] Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Helsinki HelsinkiFinland
                [ 352 ] School of BiologyThe University of Nottingham University Park NottinghamUK
                [ 353 ] Laboratorio de Zoología y Ecología Acuática – LAZOEAUniversidad de Los Andes BogotáColombia
                [ 354 ] School of ForestryUniversity of Canterbury ChristchurchNew Zealand
                [ 355 ]BIO‐Diverse BonnGermany
                [ 356 ] Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation BiologyUniversity of California, Davis Davis CAUSA
                [ 357 ]IUCN‐Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation Campanillas, MálagaSpain
                [ 358 ] Oxford University Centre for the EnvironmentUniversity of Oxford OxfordUK
                [ 359 ] Natural Resources and the EnvironmentCSIR StellenboschSouth Africa
                [ 360 ] Plant Conservation Unit Biological SciencesUniversity of Cape Town RondeboschSouth Africa
                [ 361 ] International Programme Office (IPO) Vice Chancellor's OfficeKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) KumasiGhana
                [ 362 ]Naturschutz – Planung und Beratung WiesendangenSwitzerland
                [ 363 ] Department of Wildlife and Range ManagementKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KumasiGhana
                [ 364 ]Forestry Research Institute of Ghana KumasiGhana
                [ 365 ] Department of Animal & Environmental BiologyUniversity of Benin Benin CityNigeria
                [ 366 ] Department of Genetics, Evolution and EnvironmentUniversity College London LondonUK
                [ 367 ]The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) Sandy, BedfordshireUK
                [ 368 ] Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje Facultad de Ciencias ForestalesUniversidad de Concepción ConcepciónChile
                [ 369 ]Indian Institute of Science BangaloreIndia
                [ 370 ] Laboratorio Ecotono CONICET–INIBIOMAUniversidad Nacional del Comahue BarilocheArgentina
                [ 371 ] Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Abejas LABUNUniversidad Nacional de Colombia Bogotá D.C.Colombia
                [ 372 ] Lancaster Environment CentreLancaster University LancasterUK
                [ 373 ] Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA)Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazonicos (NAEA) BelémBrazil
                [ 374 ] German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv)Halle‐Jena‐Leipzig LeipzigGermany
                [ 375 ] Department of Plant Biology and Ecology Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of the Basque Country LeioaSpain
                [ 376 ]IKERBASQUE. Basque Foundation for Science BilbaoSpain
                [ 377 ] Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA, CONICET‐UNC) and Centro de Zoología Aplicada FCEFyNUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba CórdobaArgentina
                [ 378 ] IRD UMR AMAPTA A51/PS2 Montpellier cedex 05France
                [ 379 ] French Institute of PondicherryUMIFRE 21 CNRS‐MAEE PuducherryIndia
                [ 380 ] School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East Anglia NorwichUK
                [ 381 ]National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) Río GallegosArgentina
                [ 382 ]National University of Southern Patagonia (UNPA) Río GallegosArgentina
                [ 383 ]National Commission of Scientist Research and Technology (CONICET) Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [ 384 ] Laboratory of Biogeography & Ecology Department of GeographyUniversity of the Aegean MytileneGreece
                [ 385 ] Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology BiocenterUniversity of Würzburg WürzburgGermany
                [ 386 ]University of Cambridge CambridgeUK
                [ 387 ] Conservation Science Group Department of ZoologyUniversity of Cambridge CambridgeUK
                [ 388 ] Systematics and Evolution Laboratory Department of BiologyWestern Kentucky University Bowling Green KYUSA
                [ 389 ] Department of Natural Resource Ecology and ManagementIowa State University Ames IAUSA
                [ 390 ] Facultad de Recursos Naturales Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales Laboratorio de Planificación TerritorialUniversidad Católica de Temuco TemucoChile
                [ 391 ] Biología y Conservación de VertebradosInstituto de Ecología A.C. El Haya, XalapaMexico
                [ 392 ]Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Cerdanyola del VallèsSpain
                [ 393 ] Laboratorio de Entomología Ecológica Departamento de Biología Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de La Serena La SerenaChile
                [ 394 ] Albertine Rift ProgramWildlife Conservation Society KampalaUganda
                [ 395 ] IFEVA/Cátedra de Producción Vegetal Departamento de Producción Vegetal Facultad de AgronomíaUniversidad de Buenos Aires/CONICET. Buenos AiresArgentina
                [ 396 ] Directora del Programa Conservación de Biodiversidad en Bosques Subtropicales Cátedra de Desarrollo Sustentable y Biodiversidad Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad Nacional de Jujuy CIT‐Jujuy CONICET, Fundaciòn CEBio San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina
                [ 397 ] Departament de Ciències AmbientalsUniversitat de Girona GironaSpain
                [ 398 ] EntomologyCornell University Ithaca NYUSA
                [ 399 ] Botany School of Natural SciencesTrinity College Dublin Dublin 2Ireland
                [ 400 ] Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering & Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut Storrs CTUSA
                [ 401 ] MARETEC, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de Lisboa LisbonPortugal
                [ 402 ]CREA‐ABP, Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria, Centro di ricerca per l'agrobiologia e la pedologia FirenzeItaly
                [ 403 ] Ecosystem Management, School of Environment and Rural ScienceUniversity of New England Armidale NSWAustralia
                [ 404 ] Escuela de BiologíaUniversidad Industrial de Santander BucaramangaColombia
                [ 405 ] National Center for Ecological Analysis and SynthesisUniversity of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara CAUSA
                [ 406 ] Department of BioscienceAarhus University Aarhus CDenmark
                [ 407 ]The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) Edinburgh Park EdinburghUK
                [ 408 ] Center for Conservation and Sustainable DevelopmentMissouri Botanical Garden Saint Louis MOUSA
                [ 409 ] Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade Federal de Sergipe São Cristóvão/SeBrazil
                [ 410 ] Life Sciences DepartmentUniversity of Alcala Alcalá de HenaresSpain
                [ 411 ] Entomology Colletion, Systematics and Biogeography Laboratory School of BiologyIndustrial University of Santander BucaramangaColombia
                [ 412 ] Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology DST/NRF Centre of ExcellenceUniversity of Cape Town Rondebosch Cape TownSouth Africa
                [ 413 ] School of Animal, Plant and Environmental SciencesUniversity of the Witwatersrand WitsSouth Africa
                [ 414 ] Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da SaúdeUniversidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Campo GrandeBrazil
                [ 415 ] Department of Biological SciencesBrock University St. Catharines ONCanada
                [ 416 ] EdinburghUK
                [ 417 ] Luquillo LTER, Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, College of Natural SciencesUniversity of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras San Juan PRUSA
                [ 418 ] Escuela Nacional de Estudios SuperioresUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México MoreliaMexico
                [ 419 ] Science and Conservation DivisionDepartment of Parks and Wildlife Manjimup WAAustralia
                [ 420 ] PROPLAME‐PRHIDEB‐CONICET Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (CP1428EHA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
                [ 421 ]ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH Flörsheim am MainGermany
                [ 422 ]LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK‐F Frankfurt/MainGermany
                [ 423 ] Facultad de Ciencias AmbientalesUniversidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A BogotáColombia
                [ 424 ] Catedras CONACYTCIIDIR, Unidad Oaxaca, IPN Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, Mexico
                [ 425 ]Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A. BogotáColombia
                [ 426 ] School of Natural Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of Michigan Ann Arbor MIUSA
                [ 427 ] Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Virginia Charlottesville VAUSA
                [ 428 ]Blandy Experimental Farm Boyce VAUSA
                [ 429 ] Département des sciences biologiques (SB)Universitédu Québec à Montréal (UQÀM) Montréal QCCanada
                [ 430 ] Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de Chile SantiagoChile
                [ 431 ] School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Birmingham BirminghamUK
                [ 432 ] Institute of Silviculture and Forest ProtectionUniversity of West Hungary SopronHungary
                [ 433 ] Red de Ecología FuncionalInstituto de Ecología A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec El Haya, XalapaMexico
                [ 434 ] Biology Centre CASInstitute of Entomology Ceske BudejoviceCzech Republic
                [ 435 ] Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South Bohemia Ceske BudejoviceCzech Republic
                [ 436 ]Bishop's University Sherbrooke QCCanada
                [ 437 ]CSIRO Dutton Park QldAustralia
                [ 438 ]Naturalis Biodiversity Center CR LeidenThe Netherlands
                [ 439 ] Institute for Tropical Biology and ConservationUniversiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS Kota KinabaluMalaysia
                [ 440 ] Biocentre Klein Flottbek & Botanical GardenUniversity of Hamburg HamburgGermany
                [ 441 ] Center for Development Research (ZEF)University of Bonn BonnGermany
                [ 442 ] Chair for Landscape ManagementUniversity of Freiburg FreiburgGermany
                [ 443 ] AgResearch LimitedLincoln Research Centre ChristchurchNew Zealand
                [ 444 ] Institute for Ecology, Evolution and DiversityGoethe University Frankfurt Frankfurt am MainGermany
                [ 445 ] Biology and Biomedical Sciences DivisionUniversity of Brighton BrightonUK
                [ 446 ]Charles Darwin University Brinkin NTAustralia
                [ 447 ]Lawrence University Appleton WIUSA
                [ 448 ] School of Natural Resources and ExtensionUniversity of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks AKUSA
                [ 449 ]Center for Ecology, Development and Research DehradunIndia
                [ 450 ] School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu‐Natal DurbanSouth Africa
                [ 451 ] Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management (INA)Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) ÅsNorway
                [ 452 ] Museum of Natural Science and Department of Biological SciencesLouisiana State University Baton Rouge LAUSA
                [ 453 ] Baton Rouge LAUSA
                [ 454 ] Department of Life SciencesBen‐Gurion University of the Negev Be'er ShevaIsrael
                [ 455 ]The Yerucham Center of Ornithology and Ecology YeruchamIsrael
                [ 456 ] Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Pará BelémBrazil
                [ 457 ]Organic Research Centre Elm Farm NewburyUK
                [ 458 ]United States Department of Agriculture South San Francisco CAUSA
                [ 459 ]Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin MedellinColombia
                [ 460 ] Department of Biological SciencesNational University of Singapore SingaporeSingapore
                [ 461 ] Ecología de Comunidades Ãridas y Semiaridas (EComAS) Departamento de Recursos Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUNLPam. Santa rosa La PampaUruguay
                [ 462 ]Gobierno Autónomo Departamental Santa Cruz Santa Cruz de la SierraBolivia
                [ 463 ] Université du Québec à RimouskiCentre for Northern Research, Centre for Forest Studies Rimouski QCCanada
                [ 464 ] School of Environmental StudiesUniversity of Victoria Victoria BCCanada
                [ 465 ]Museu de Ciències Naturals de Granollers Granollers BarcelonaSpain
                [ 466 ] School of Renewable Natural ResourcesLouisiana State University Agricultural Center Baton Rouge LAUSA
                [ 467 ] Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments ProjectInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia ManausBrazil
                [ 468 ] Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of Hawaii Manoa Honolulu HIUSA
                [ 469 ] Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of Sciences Chaoyang District BeijingChina
                [ 470 ] State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology Research Center for Eco‐Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of Sciences Haidian District BeijingChina
                [ 471 ] Institute of ZoologyUniversity of Natural Resources and Life Sciences ViennaAustria
                [ 472 ] Department of Environmental Science and PolicyDrake University Des Moines IAUSA
                [ 473 ] Department of BiologyHong Kong Baptist University Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SARChina
                [ 474 ] Zoological Division Research Center For BiologyThe Indonesian Institute of Sciences Cibinong BogorIndonesia
                [ 475 ] Section for Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity Department of BioscienceAarhus University Aarhus CDenmark
                [ 476 ] Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of Tartu TartuEstonia
                [ 477 ] School of Ecosystem and Forest Science, Faculty of ScienceThe University of Melbourne Richmond Vic.Australia
                [ 478 ] Department of BiologySaint Louis University St. Louis MOUSA
                [ 479 ]MTA‐DE Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group DebrecenHungary
                [ 480 ] Insect Ecology Group Department of ZoologyUniversity of Cambridge CambridgeUK
                [ 481 ] Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Canterbury ChristchurchNew Zealand
                [ 482 ]Instituto Neotropical: Pesquisa e Conservação CuritibaBrazil
                [ 483 ] Department of Ecology and Territory School of Environmental and Rural StudiesPontificia Universidad Javeriana BogotaColombia
                [ 484 ] Naturhistorisches Museum BaselLeiter Biowissenschaften BaselSwitzerland
                [ 485 ]NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bush Estate Penicuik EdinburghUK
                [ 486 ] Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) UberlândiaBrazil
                [ 487 ] Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem ResearchBulgarian Academy of Science SofiaBulgaria
                [ 488 ] Division Forest, Nature, and Landscape Department of Earth & Environmental SciencesKU Leuven LeuvenBelgium
                [ 489 ] Museu Nacional de História Natural e da CiênciaBorboletário – Depart. Zoologia LisboaPortugal
                [ 490 ] Departamento de Ciencias Químico‐BiológicasUniversidad de las Américas Puebla CholulaMexico
                [ 491 ] Departamento de Gestión AgrariaUniversidad de Santiago de Chile SantiagoChile
                [ 492 ] Den HaagThe Netherlands
                [ 493 ]Royal Museum for Central Africa – Joint Experimental Molecular Unit TervurenBelgium
                [ 494 ] Vietnam National Museum of NatureVietnam Academy of Science and Technology Cau Giay HanoiVietnam
                [ 495 ] Botany DepartmentUniversity of Otago DunedinNew Zealand
                [ 496 ] School for Resource and Environmental Studies Faculty of ManagementDalhousie University Halifax NSCanada
                [ 497 ] Key Laboratory of Protection and Development Utilization of Tropical Crop Germplasm Resource, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture and Landscape Agriculture Hainan University HaikouChina
                [ 498 ] College of Life SciencesZhejiang University HangzhouChina
                [ 499 ] Department of BiologyJohn Carroll University University Heights OHUSA
                [ 500 ] The Environment Institute and School of Earth and Environmental SciencesThe University of Adelaide Adelaide SAAustralia
                [ 501 ] Environmental Futures Research InstituteGriffith University Brisbane QldAustralia
                [ 502 ] Department of Environmental and Natural ResourcesPresbyterian University College Akropong AkuapemGhana
                [ 503 ] School of Natural Sciences and PsychologyLiverpool John Moores University LiverpoolUK
                [ 504 ] Center for Environmental Sciences & EngineeringUniversity of Connecticut Storrs CTUSA
                [ 505 ] Department of Ecology & Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of Connecticut Storrs CTUSA
                [ 506 ] Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED)University of Amsterdam GE AmsterdamThe Netherlands
                [ 507 ]NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Crowmarsh Gifford WallingfordUK
                [ 508 ] Institute of Biodiversity Science, School of Life SciencesFudan University ShanghaiChina
                [ 509 ] International Institute of Tropical ForestryUSDA Forest Service, Sabana Field Research Station Luquillo PRUSA
                [ 510 ]Tsukuba University IbarakiJapan
                [ 511 ] School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East Anglia Norwich Research Park NorwichUK
                [ 512 ] State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of Sciences KunmingChina
                [ 513 ]A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution MoscowRussia
                [ 514 ]Integrated Environmental Consultants Namibia (IECN) WindhoekNamibia
                [ 515 ]Guangdong Entomological Institute/South China Institute of Endangered Animals GuangzhouChina
                [ 516 ] Computational Ecology and Environmental ScienceMicrosoft Research CambridgeUK
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Lawrence N. Hudson, Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

                Email: l.hudson@ 123456nhm.ac.uk

                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                ECE32579
                10.1002/ece3.2579
                5215197
                28070282
                © 2016 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 44, Words: 36669
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                Funding
                Funded by: U.K. Natural Environment Research Council
                Award ID: NE/J011193/2
                Award ID: NE/L002515/1
                Funded by: United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Centre
                Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
                Award ID: BB/F017324/1
                Funded by: Hans Rausing PhD Scholarship
                Funded by: COLCIENCIAS (Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación de Colombia)
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                ece32579
                January 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.0.0 mode:remove_FC converted:05.01.2017

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