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      Passage of Cytokines across the Blood-Brain Barrier

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          Abstract

          One mechanism by which blood-borne cytokines might affect the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for direct interaction with CNS tissue. Saturable transport systems from blood to the CNS have been described for interleukin (IL)-1α IL-1β IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Blood-borne cytokines have been shown to cross the BBB to enter cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord. IL-2 does not cross the BBB by a saturable transport system. The blood-to-brain uptakes of IL-1α, IL-β, and IL-1ra are interrelated for most brain sites, but the posterior division of the septum shows selective uptake of blood-borne IL-1α. The saturable transport systems for IL-6 and TNF-α are distinguishable from each other and from the IL-1 systems. The amount of blood-borne cytokines entering the brain is modest but comparable to that of other water-soluble compounds, such as morphine, known to cross the BBB in sufficient amounts to affect brain function. CNS to blood efflux of cytokines has also been shown to occur, but the mechanism of passage is unclear. Taken together, the evidence shows that passage of cytokines across the BBB occurs, providing a route by which blood-borne cytokines could potentially affect brain function.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NIM
          Neuroimmunomodulation
          10.1159/issn.1021-7401
          Neuroimmunomodulation
          S. Karger AG
          1021-7401
          1423-0216
          1995
          1995
          08 March 1996
          : 2
          : 4
          : 241-248
          Affiliations
          aVeterans Affairs Medical Center and Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La., bOffice of Research Integrity, US Public Health Service, Rockville, Md., USA
          Article
          97202 Neuroimmunomodulation 1995;2:241–248
          10.1159/000097202
          8963753
          © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Categories
          Recent Progress in Neuroimmunomodulation / Review

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