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      Cellular regeneration strategies for macular degeneration: past, present and future

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          Abstract

          Despite considerable effort and significant therapeutic advances, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the commonest cause of blindness in the developed world. Progressive late-stage AMD with outer retinal degeneration currently has no proven treatment. There has been significant interest in the possibility that cellular treatments may slow or reverse visual loss in AMD. A number of modes of action have been suggested, including cell replacement and rescue, as well as immune modulation to delay the neurodegenerative process. Their appeal in this enigmatic disease relate to their generic, non-pathway-specific effects. The outer retina in particular has been at the forefront of developments in cellular regenerative therapies being surgically accessible, easily observable, as well as having a relatively simple architecture. Both the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors have been considered for replacement therapies as both sheets and cell suspensions. Studies using autologous RPE, and to a lesser extent, foetal retina, have shown proof of principle. A wide variety of cell sources have been proposed with pluripotent stem cell-derived cells currently holding the centre stage. Recent early-phase trials using these cells for RPE replacement have met safety endpoints and hinted at possible efficacy. Animal studies have confirmed the promise that photoreceptor replacement, even in a completely degenerated outer retina may restore some vision. Many challenges, however, remain, not least of which include avoiding immune rejection, ensuring long-term cellular survival and maximising effect. This review provides an overview of progress made, ongoing studies and challenges ahead.

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          Most cited references 222

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          Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

          Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
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            Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.

            Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
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              Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts.

              Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages. After undifferentiated proliferation in vitro for 4 to 5 months, these cells still maintained the developmental potential to form trophoblast and derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers, including gut epithelium (endoderm); cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, and striated muscle (mesoderm); and neural epithelium, embryonic ganglia, and stratified squamous epithelium (ectoderm). These cell lines should be useful in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44 (191) 5699065 , David.steel@ncl.ac.uk
                Journal
                Eye (Lond)
                Eye (Lond)
                Eye
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0950-222X
                1476-5454
                5 March 2018
                5 March 2018
                May 2018
                : 32
                : 5
                : 946-971
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0462 7212, GRID grid.1006.7, Institute of Genetic Medicine, , Newcastle University, ; Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0399 9171, GRID grid.419700.b, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, ; Queen Alexandra Road, Sunderland, UK
                Article
                61
                10.1038/s41433-018-0061-z
                5944658
                29503449
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2018

                Vision sciences

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