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      Stratophenetic tracing of phylogeny using SIMCA pattern recognition technique: a case study of the late Neogene planktic foraminifera Globoconellaclade

      Paleobiology
      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Abstract

          The Plio-Pleistocene planktic foraminiferal sequence of the Globorotalia( Globoconella) puncticulata-inflataclade in Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 588, dated at 4.36 Ma to 0.05 Ma, records the branching history of the G. inflatalineage from the ancestral G. puncticulatalineage. The gradational nature of the divergence and the enormous morphological variability inherent in the G. inflatalineage have elicited different views on taxonomy and phylogeny of this clade. A pattern recognition technique, soft independent modeling of class analog (SIMCA), was used as an objective quantitative stratophenetic methodology to reconstruct the phylogenetic history.

          Typical specimens of two species, G. puncticulataand G. inflata,were identified from a stratigraphic level dated at 2.76 Ma. Principal component models were built to characterize the morphometric patterns of the two morphotypes using SIMCA. The Globoconellaspecimens of the next lower and higher adjacent stratigraphic levels were evaluated against the models and classified into one of the two morphotypes. The newly classified specimens were then used to build new models for further tracing of lineages in lower and upper sections, respectively. Progression of such training and classification procedures through stratigraphic intervals resulted in a reconstruction of the evolutionary patterns of the two lineages. Cladogenesis gave rise to the descendant lineage, G. inflata,at about 3.5 Ma. The two co-existing species, G. inflataand G. puncticulata,differ only in size and show similarity in most characters at the beginning of their divergence. Other characters began to diverge later, at various rates. The gradients between planktic and benthic foraminiferal δ 18O values show a continuous increase during the late Pliocene. The succession from G. puncticulatato G. inflataduring the same time correlates with the progressively increased vertical stratification in temperature of surface waters. Globorotalia puncticulatabecame extinct at 2.35 Ma when the temperature gradient further increased, corresponding to the onset of extensive glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Paleobiology
                Paleobiology
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0094-8373
                1938-5331
                1994
                February 08 2016
                1994
                : 20
                : 1
                : 52-65
                Article
                10.1017/S0094837300011131
                4ad3509d-26f5-466e-84ec-faa75e432613
                © 1994

                https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms

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