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      Laryngeal mask airway indications : new frontiers for second-generation supraglottic airways

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          Abstract

          Because of the many advantages of supraglottic airways (SGA) compared to mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation, their areas of application are constantly expanding. The development of second-generation SGAs in particular has led to a widening of the indications for use thanks to the improved oropharyngeal leak pressure and the possibility of inserting a gastric tube. The identification of possible malpositions and any increased ventilation requirements using simple clinical tests must be given particular emphasis. The question of patient safety for expanded indications has to be evaluated.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Laryngeal mask airways have a lower risk of airway complications compared with endotracheal intubation: a systematic review.

          The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in patients undergoing general anesthesia, those provided with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) have a lower risk of airway-related complications than those undergoing endotracheal intubation. A systematic review of randomized prospective controlled trials was done to compare the risk of airway complications with an LMA versus an endotracheal tube (ETT) in patients receiving general anesthesia. Two independent reviewers identified 29 randomized prospective controlled trials that met the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data for each individual outcome measure were combined to analyze the relative risk ratios (RRs). The Cochrane RevMan software was used for statistical analysis. When an ETT was used to protect the airway, a statistically significant greater incidence of hoarse voice (RR 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55 to 4.34), a greater incidence of laryngospasm during emergence (RR 3.16, 95% CI 1.38 to 7.21), a greater incidence of coughing (RR 7.12, 95% CI 4.28 to 11.84), and a greater incidence of sore throat (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.11) was found compared with when an LMA was used to protect the airway. The differences in the risk of regurgitation (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.59), vomiting (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.74 to 3.26), nausea (RR 1.59, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.78), and the success of insertion on the first attempt (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18) were not statistically significant between the 2 groups. For the patients receiving general anesthesia, the use of the LMA resulted in a statistically and clinically significant lower incidence of laryngospasm during emergence, postoperative hoarse voice, and coughing than when using an ETT. The risk of aspiration could not be determined because only 1 study reported a single case of aspiration, which was in the group using the ETT. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Comparison of the LMA Supreme vs the i-gel in paralysed patients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopic surgery with controlled ventilation.

            We compared the efficacy of the inflatable cuff of the LMA Supreme against the non-inflatable i-gel cuff in providing an adequate seal for laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position in 100 female patients. There was no difference in our primary outcome, oropharyngeal leak pressure, between the LMA Supreme and the i-gel (mean (SD) 26.4 (5.1) vs 25.0 (5.7) cmH(2) O, respectively; p = 0.18). Forty-seven (94%) LMA Supremes and 48 (96%) i-gels were successfully inserted on the first attempt, with similar ease, and comparable times to the first capnograph trace (mean (SD) 14.3 (4.7) s for the LMA Supreme vs 15.4 (8.2) s for the i-gel; p = 0.4). Gastric tube insertion was easier and achieved more quickly with the LMA Supreme vs the i-gel (9.0 (2.5) s vs 15.1 (7.3) s, respectively; p < 0.001). After creation of the pneumoperitoneum, there was a smaller difference between expired and inspired tidal volumes with the LMA Supreme (21.5 (15.2) ml) than with the i-gel (31.2 (23.5) ml; p = 0.009). There was blood on removal of two LMA Supremes and one i-gel. Four patients in the LMA Supreme group and one patient in the i-gel group experienced mild postoperative sore throat.
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              Use of manometry for laryngeal mask airway reduces postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events: a prospective, randomized trial.

              Adverse events such as pharyngolaryngeal complications are indicators of quality patient care. Use of manometry to limit the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) intracuff pressure is not currently a routine practice. This double-blind randomized trial compared pharyngolaryngeal complications in patients managed with manometers to limit the LMA intracuff pressure (<44 mmHg) with patients under routine care. Two hundred consenting patients who underwent ambulatory surgery were randomly allocated to pressure-limiting and routine care groups. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane in air-oxygen. An LMA was inserted, and the cuff was inflated as per usual practice. The patients breathed spontaneously. Research assistants measured the LMA intracuff pressure. In the pressure-limiting group, LMA intracuff pressure was adjusted to less than 44 mmHg. No intervention was performed in the routine care group. Sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were assessed at 1, 2, and 24 h postoperatively. Composite pharyngolaryngeal complications were compared using chi-square test. Baseline demographic data were comparable between groups. Mean LMA intracuff pressure was less in the pressure-limiting group versus the routine care group (40 +/- 6 vs. 114 +/- 57 mmHg, P < 0.001). The incidence of composite pharyngolaryngeal complications was significantly lower in the pressure-limiting group versus the routine care group (13.4 vs. 45.6%, P < 0.001), with a relative risk reduction of 70.6%, and a number needed to treat of three (95% CI 2.2-7.5). Reduction of LMA intracuff pressure to less than 44 mmHg lowers the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal complications. The LMA cuff pressures should be measured routinely using manometry, and deflating the intracuff pressure to less than 44 mmHg should be recommended as anesthetic best practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
                Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0952-7907
                2015
                December 2015
                : 28
                : 6
                : 717-726
                Article
                10.1097/ACO.0000000000000262
                26539790
                © 2015

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