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      A Cytoprotective and Degradable Metal-Polyphenol Nanoshell for Single-Cell Encapsulation

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          Most cited references 36

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          Cell-based therapeutics: the next pillar of medicine.

          Two decades ago, the pharmaceutical industry-long dominated by small-molecule drugs-was revolutionized by the the advent of biologics. Today, biomedicine sits on the cusp of a new revolution: the use of microbial and human cells as versatile therapeutic engines. Here, we discuss the promise of this "third pillar" of therapeutics in the context of current scientific, regulatory, economic, and perceptual challenges. History suggests that the advent of cellular medicines will require the development of a foundational cellular engineering science that provides a systematic framework for safely and predictably altering and regulating cellular behaviors.
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            The Bacillus subtilis endospore: assembly and functions of the multilayered coat.

            Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis involves an asymmetric cell division followed by differentiation into two cell types, the endospore and the mother cell. The endospore coat is a multilayered shell that protects the bacterial genome during stress conditions and is composed of dozens of proteins. Recently, fluorescence microscopy coupled with high-resolution image analysis has been applied to the dynamic process of coat assembly and has shown that the coat is organized into at least four distinct layers. In this Review, we provide a brief summary of B. subtilis sporulation, describe the function of the spore surface layers and discuss the recent progress that has improved our understanding of the structure of the endospore coat and the mechanisms of coat assembly.
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              Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers.

              Endospores formed by Bacillus, Clostridia, and related genera are encased in a protein shell called the coat. In many species, including B. subtilis, the coat is the outermost spore structure, and in other species, such as the pathogenic organisms B. anthracis and B. cereus, the spore is encased in an additional layer called the exosporium. Both the coat and the exosporium have roles in protection of the spore and in its environmental interactions. Assembly of both structures is a function of the mother cell, one of two cellular compartments of the developing sporangium. Studies in B. subtilis have revealed that the timing of coat protein production, the guiding role of a small group of morphogenetic proteins, and several types of posttranslational modifications are essential for the fidelity of the assembly process. Assembly of the exosporium requires a set of novel proteins as well as homologues of proteins found in the outermost layers of the coat and of some of the coat morphogenetic factors, suggesting that the exosporium is a more specialized structure of a multifunctional coat. These and other insights into the molecular details of spore surface morphogenesis provide avenues for exploitation of the spore surface layers in applications for biotechnology and medicine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie
                Angew. Chem.
                Wiley
                00448249
                November 10 2014
                November 10 2014
                August 19 2014
                : 126
                : 46
                : 12628-12633
                Article
                10.1002/ange.201405905
                25139382
                © 2014
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