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      Development and implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary pain management program for patients with intractable chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan: preliminary report

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Multidisciplinary pain management is a useful method to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Few facilities in Japan administer a multidisciplinary pain management program, especially an inpatient program. Therefore, we implemented a multidisciplinary pain management program in our hospital based on biopsychosocial factors guided by the recommendations of the International Association for the Study of Pain. The purpose of this study is to describe our inpatient pain management program for Japanese patients, which uses the biopsychosocial method of pain self-management.

          Materials and methods

          Fourteen patients with intractable chronic musculoskeletal pain, who were implemented a multidisciplinary pain management program in our hospital, were studied using the evaluation of the pain and associated factors and physical function.

          Results

          Significant improvement in outcomes were seen in the brief pain inventory, the pain catastrophizing scale (rumination, magnification, and helplessness), the pain disability assessment scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale (anxiety and depression), the pain self-efficacy questionnaire, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, and muscle endurance and physical fitness. We found no statistically significant differences in static flexibility or walking ability.

          Conclusion

          We developed an inpatient chronic pain management program for Japanese patients. Our results suggest that our program improves chronic musculoskeletal pain coping mechanisms, and that the program can improve patients’ quality of life and some physical function. This inpatient pain management program is being expanded to better help intractable chronic musculoskeletal pain patients.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion.

          A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress. ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC activity.
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            Multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain: a systematic review of interventions and outcomes.

            To provide an overview of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatments of chronic pain and investigate about their differential effects on outcome in various pain conditions and of different multidisciplinary treatments, settings or durations. In this article, the authors performed a systematic review of all currently available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria, by using a recently developed rating system aimed to assess the strength of evidence with regard to the methodological quality of the trials. Compared with other non-disciplinary treatments, moderate evidence of higher effectiveness for multidisciplinary interventions was shown. In contrast to no treatment or standard medical treatment, strong evidence was detected in favour of multidisciplinary treatments. The evidence that comprehensive inpatient programmes were more beneficial that outpatient programmes was moderate. Fibromyalgia and chronic back pain patients tended to profit more substantially than patients with diverse origins or chronic pain diagnoses. No evidence was found that treatment variables, such as duration or programme components, were influential for the success of the intervention. A standard of multidisciplinary programmes should be internationally established to guarantee generally good outcomes in the treatment of chronic pain. Our results highlight the lack of quality of design, execution or reporting of many of the RCTs included in this article. Future studies should more specifically focus on differential effects of treatment components and patient variables, allowing the identification of subgroups, which most probably would profit from multidisciplinary pain programmes.
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              Descending pain modulation and chronification of pain.

              Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts quality of life of affected individuals and exacts an enormous socio-economic cost. Currently available therapeutics provide inadequate management of pain in many patients. Acute pain states generally resolve in most patients. However, for reasons that are poorly understood, in some individuals, acute pain can transform to a chronic state. Our understanding of the risk factors that underlie the development of chronic pain is limited. Recent studies have suggested an important contribution of dysfunction in descending pain modulatory circuits to pain 'chronification'. Human studies provide insights into possible endogenous and exogenous factors that may promote the conversion of pain into a chronic condition. Descending pain modulatory systems have been studied and characterized in animal models. Human brain imaging techniques, deep brain stimulation and the mechanisms of action of drugs that are effective in the treatment of pain confirm the clinical relevance of top-down pain modulatory circuits. Growing evidence supports the concept that chronic pain is associated with a dysregulation in descending pain modulation. Disruption of the balance of descending modulatory circuits to favour facilitation may promote and maintain chronic pain. Recent findings suggest that diminished descending inhibition is likely to be an important element in determining whether pain may become chronic. This view is consistent with the clinical success of drugs that enhance spinal noradrenergic activity, such as serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), in the treatment of chronic pain states. Consistent with this concept, a robust descending inhibitory system may be normally engaged to protect against the development of chronic pain. Imaging studies show that higher cortical and subcortical centres that govern emotional, motivational and cognitive processes communicate directly with descending pain modulatory circuits providing a mechanistic basis to explain how exogenous factors can influence the expression of chronic pain in a susceptible individual. Preclinical studies coupled with clinical pharmacologic and neuroimaging investigations have advanced our understanding of brain circuits that modulate pain. Descending pain facilitatory and inhibitory circuits arising ultimately in the brainstem provide mechanisms that can be engaged to promote or protect against pain 'chronification'. These systems interact with higher centres, thus providing a means through which exogenous factors can influence the risk of pain chronification. A greater understanding of the role of descending pain modulation can lead to novel therapeutic directions aimed at normalizing aberrant processes that can lead to chronic pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                15 January 2018
                : 11
                : 201-211
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pain Medicine, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima
                [2 ]Pain Management Center, Hoshi General Hospital, Koriyama, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Naoto Takahashi, Department of Pain Medicine, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima City, Fukushima 9601295, Japan, Tel +81 24 547 1964, Fax +81 24 547 1966, Email naotot211@ 123456aol.com
                Article
                jpr-11-201
                10.2147/JPR.S154171
                5774477
                © 2018 Takahashi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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