The research is aimed at investigating computed tomography (CT) image based on deep learning algorithm and the application value of ceramide glycosylation in diagnosing bladder cancer. The images of ordinary CT detection were improved. In this study, 60 bladder cancer patients were selected and performed with ordinary CT detection, and the detection results were processed by CT based on deep learning algorithms and compared with pathological diagnosis. In addition, Western Blot technology was used to detect the expression of glucose ceramide synthase (GCS) in the cell membrane of tumor tissues and normal tissues of bladder. The comparison results found that, in simple CT clinical staging, the coincidence rates of T1 stage, T2a stage, T2b stage, T3 stage, and T4 stage were 28.56%, 62.51%, 78.94%, 84.61%, and 74.99%, respectively; and the total coincidence rate of CT clinical staging was 63.32%, which was greatly different from the clinical staging of pathological diagnosis ( P < 0.05). In the clinical staging of algorithm-based CT test results, the coincidence rates of T1 stage and T2a stage were 50.01% and 91.65%, respectively; and those of T2b stage, T3 stage, and T4 stage were 100.00%; and the total coincidence rate was 96.69%, which was not obviously different from the clinical staging of pathological diagnosis ( P > 0.05). Therefore, it could be concluded that the algorithm-based CT detection results were more accurate, and the use of CT scans based on deep learning algorithms in the preoperative staging and clinical treatment of bladder cancer showed reliable guiding significance and clinical value. In addition, it was found that the expression level of GCS in normal bladder tissues was much lower than that in bladder cancer tissues. This indicated that the changes in GCS were closely related to the development and prognosis of bladder cancer. Therefore, it was believed that GCS may be an effective target for the treatment of bladder cancer in the future, and further research was needed for specific conditions.