Freeze casting, also known as ice templating, is a particularly versatile technique that has been applied extensively for the fabrication of well-controlled biomimetic porous materials based on ceramics, metals, polymers, biomacromolecules, and carbon nanomaterials, endowing them with novel properties and broadening their applicability. The principles of different directional freeze-casting processes are described and the relationships between processing and structure are examined. Recent progress in freeze-casting assisted assembly of low dimensional building blocks, including graphene and carbon nanotubes, into tailored micro- and macrostructures is then summarized. Emerging trends relating to novel materials as building blocks and novel freeze-cast geometries-beads, fibers, films, complex macrostructures, and nacre-mimetic composites-are presented. Thereafter, the means by which aligned porous structures and nacre mimetic materials obtainable through recently developed freeze-casting techniques and low-dimensional building blocks can facilitate material functionality across multiple fields of application, including energy storage and conversion, environmental remediation, thermal management, and smart materials, are discussed.