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      Discrimination in lexical decision

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          Abstract

          In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning ( ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently.

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          Greedy function approximation: A gradient boosting machine.

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            DRC: a dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

            This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the authors show that a wide variety of variables that influence human latencies influence the DRC model's latencies in exactly the same way. The DRC model simulates a number of such effects that other computational models of reading do not, but there appear to be no effects that any other current computational model of reading can simulate but that the DRC model cannot. The authors conclude that the DRC model is the most successful of the existing computational models of reading.
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              Principal Components Analysis

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2017
                24 February 2017
                : 12
                : 2
                : e0171935
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Journalism Studies, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Haskins Laboratories and Department of Psychology, SUNY, Albany, United States of America
                [3 ]Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, NETHERLANDS
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: PM LBF MR RHB.

                • Data curation: PM LBF RHB PH.

                • Formal analysis: PM RHB PH.

                • Funding acquisition: LBF RHB.

                • Investigation: LBF RHB PM PH.

                • Methodology: PM RHB MR PH.

                • Project administration: PM RHB LBF.

                • Resources: PM LBF MR PH RHB.

                • Software: PM RHB PH.

                • Supervision: PM LBF RHB MR.

                • Validation: PM LBF RHB.

                • Visualization: PM RHB PH.

                • Writing – original draft: PM LBF MR PH RHB.

                • Writing – review & editing: PM LBF MR PH RHB.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9708-7031
                Article
                PONE-D-16-25498
                10.1371/journal.pone.0171935
                5325216
                28235015
                4afed637-52aa-403e-a952-3d8734fd252f
                © 2017 Milin et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 25 June 2016
                : 27 January 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 11, Pages: 42
                Funding
                Funded by: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung (DE)
                Award Recipient :
                This research was supported in part by the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through an Alexander von Humboldt research chair awarded to R. H. Baayen, by Grants 179006 and 179033 from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia to Petar Milin, and by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development HD 01994 to Haskins Laboratories ( http://www.sfs.uni-tuebingen.de/ql/projekte.html).
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                The relevant data underlying this study are available at the following page: URL: http://openscience.uni-leipzig.de/index.php/mr2/article/view/143.

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