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      Sustainable technologies for water purification from heavy metals: review and analysis

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          Abstract

          We review and analyze current water purification technologies in the context of sustainability, and we introduce the Ranking Efficiency Product (REP) index, to evaluate their efficiency and implementation in this broader perspective.

          Abstract

          Water pollution is a global problem threatening the entire biosphere and affecting the life of many millions of people around the world. Not only is water pollution one of the foremost global risk factors for illness, diseases and death, but it also contributes to the continuous reduction of the available drinkable water worldwide. Delivering valuable solutions, which are easy to implement and affordable, often remains a challenge. Here we review the current state-of-the-art of available technologies for water purification and discuss their field of application for heavy metal ion removal, as heavy metal ions are the most harmful and widespread contaminants. We consider each technology in the context of sustainability, a largely neglected key factor, which may actually play a pivotal role in the implementation of each technology in real applications, and we introduce a compact index, the Ranking Efficiency Product (REP), to evaluate the efficiency and ease of implementation of the various technologies in this broader perspective. Emerging technologies, for which a detailed quantitative analysis and assessment is not yet possible according to this methodology, either due to scarcity or inhomogeneity of data, are discussed in the final part of the manuscript.

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          Most cited references200

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          Metal-organic frameworks for artificial photosynthesis and photocatalysis.

          Solar energy is an alternative, sustainable energy source for mankind. Finding a convenient way to convert sunlight energy into chemical energy is a key step towards realizing large-scale solar energy utilization. Owing to their structural regularity and synthetic tunability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide an interesting platform to hierarchically organize light-harvesting antennae and catalytic centers to achieve solar energy conversion. Such photo-driven catalytic processes not only play a critical role in the solar to chemical energy conversion scheme, but also provide a novel methodology for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of energy transfer and photocatalysis and provide an overview of the latest progress in energy transfer, light-harvesting, photocatalytic proton and CO2 reduction, and water oxidation using MOFs. The applications of MOFs in organic photocatalysis and degradation of model organic pollutants are also discussed.
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            Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas: is the sky the limit?

            We have synthesized, characterized, and computationally simulated/validated the behavior of two new metal-organic framework (MOF) materials displaying the highest experimental Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of any porous materials reported to date (~7000 m(2)/g). Key to evacuating the initially solvent-filled materials without pore collapse, and thereby accessing the ultrahigh areas, is the use of a supercritical CO(2) activation technique. Additionally, we demonstrate computationally that by shifting from phenyl groups to "space efficient" acetylene moieties as linker expansion units, the hypothetical maximum surface area for a MOF material is substantially greater than previously envisioned (~14600 m(2)/g (or greater) versus ~10500 m(2)/g).
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              Metal-organic framework membranes: from synthesis to separation application.

              Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, which are constructed from metal ions or metal ion clusters and bridging organic linkers, exhibit regular crystalline lattices with relatively well-defined pore structures and interesting properties. As a new class of porous solid materials, MOFs are attractive for a variety of industrial applications including separation membranes - a rapidly developing research area. Many reports have discussed the synthesis and applications of MOFs and MOF thin films, but relatively few have addressed MOF membranes. This critical review provides an overview of the diverse MOF membranes that have been prepared, beginning with a brief introduction to the current techniques for the fabrication of MOF membranes. Gas and liquid separation applications with different MOF membranes are also included (175 references).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CSRVBR
                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                0306-0012
                1460-4744
                January 21 2019
                2019
                : 48
                : 2
                : 463-487
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health Science & Technology
                [2 ]ETH Zürich
                [3 ]8092 Zürich
                [4 ]Switzerland
                [5 ]Department of Materials
                Article
                10.1039/C8CS00493E
                30603760
                4b08d185-b060-4b58-a544-c44620335102
                © 2019

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

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