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      Comparative Analysis of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus crispatus Isolated From Human Urogenital and Gastrointestinal Tracts

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus gasseri are two of the main Lactobacillus species found in the healthy vaginal microbiome and have also previously been identified and isolated from the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These two ecological niches are fundamentally different, notably with regards to the epithelial cell type, nutrient availability, environmental conditions, pH, and microbiome composition. Given the dramatic differences between these two environments, we characterized strains within the same Lactobacillus species isolated from either the vaginal or intestinal tract to assess whether they are phenotypically and genetically different. We compared the genomes of the Lactobacillus strains selected in this study for genetic features of interest, and performed a series of comparative phenotypic assays including small intestinal juice and acid resistance, carbohydrate fermentation profiles, lactic acid production, and host interaction with intestinal Caco-2 and vaginal VK2 cell lines. We also developed a simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) to study bacterial growth in a proxy vaginal environment and conducted differential transcriptomic analysis between SVF and standard laboratory MRS medium. Overall, our results show that although strain-specific variation is observed, some phenotypic differences seem associated with the isolation source. We encourage future probiotic formulation to include isolation source and take into consideration genetic and phenotypic features for use at various body sites.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Ecological role of lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract: implications for fundamental and biomedical research.

           Jens Walter (2008)
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            A vaginal fluid simulant.

            A fluid medium was developed to simulate the fluid produced in the human vagina. The composition of the medium was based on an extensive review of the literature on constituents of human vaginal secretions. In choosing the ingredients for this medium, the goal was to emphasize properties that influence interactions of vaginal fluid with topical contraceptive, prophylactic, or therapeutic products. Among these properties, pH and osmolarity play a dominant role in physicochemical processes that govern drug release and distribution.
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              Diversification of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri as a result of host-driven evolution.

              The vertebrate digestive tract, including that of humans, is the habitat to trillions of bacteria that are of significant importance to host biology and health. Although these communities are often postulated to have coevolved with their hosts, evidence is lacking, yet critical for our understanding of microbial symbiosis in vertebrates. To gain insight into the evolution of a gut symbiont, we have characterized the population genetic structure and phylogeny of Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from six different host species (human, mouse, rat, pig, chicken and turkey) using Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA). The results revealed considerable genetic heterogeneity within the L. reuteri population and distinct monophyletic clades reflecting host origin but not provenance. The evolutionary patterns detected indicate a long-term association of L. reuteri lineages with particular vertebrate species and host-driven diversification. Results from a competition experiment in a gnotobiotic mouse model revealed that rodent isolates showed elevated ecological performance, indicating that evolution of L. reuteri lineages was adaptive. These findings provide evidence that some vertebrate gut microbes are not promiscuous, but have diversified into host-adapted lineages by a long-term evolutionary process, allowing the development of a highly specialized symbiosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                22 January 2020
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University , Raleigh, NC, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Maria Carmen Collado, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spain

                Reviewed by: Mariya Ivanova Petrova, KU Leuven, Belgium; Carola Parolin, University of Bologna, Italy

                *Correspondence: Rodolphe Barrangou, rbarran@ 123456ncsu.edu

                This article was submitted to Microbial Symbioses, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2019.03146
                6988505
                Copyright © 2020 Pan, Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Goh, Sanozky-Dawes and Barrangou.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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